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Table 1 Description of main patient characteristics and comparisons between of regular BZD/Z-drug users and non-users

From: The prevalence and prescribing patterns of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in older nursing home residents in different European countries and Israel: retrospective results from the EU SHELTER study

  Total sample
N = 4023 (%)
All regular BZD/Z-drug users
N = 1113 (%)
BZD/Z-drug
non-users
N = 2910 (%)
p-value
Age, years mean ± SD 83.5 ± 9.4 83.2 ± 9.4 83.7 ± 9.3 0.10
Age categories N (%)
  ≤ 65 years 177 (4.0) 51 (5.0) 126 (4.7) 0.267
 66–74 years 354 (9.6) 108 (10.7) 246 (9.1)
 75–84 years 1172 (31.7) 330 (32.7) 842 (31.3)
  ≥ 85 years 1197 (54.0) 521 (51.6) 1476 (54.9)
Gender (female) 2945 (73.2) 822 (73.9) 2123 (73.0) 0.53
Number of medications mean ± SD 7 ± 3.6 8.3 ± 3.3 6.5 ± 3.6 < 0.001
Number of medications categories
  ≤ 4 medications 1044 (26.0) 144 (12.9) 900 (30.9) < 0.001
 5–9 medications 2000 (49.7) 581 (52.2) 1419 (48.8)
  ≥ 10 medications 979 (24.3) 388 (34.9) 591 (20.3)
CPS a
 Mean ± SD 2.9 ± 1.9 2.7 ± 1.9 3.0 ± 1.9 0.002
 Median (IQR) 3.0 (1.0–5.0) 3.0 (1.0–5.0) 3.0 (1.0–5.0)
CPS categories N (%)
 0–1 Cognition intact 1116 (28.3) 367 (33.5) 796 (26.3) < 0.001
 2–6 Cognition impaired 2831 (71.7) 730 (66.5) 2101 (73.7)
ADL Hierarchy scale b
 Mean ± SD 15.2 ± 9.5 14.2 ± 9.7 15.5 ± 9.5 < 0.001
 Median (IQR) 16.0 (7.0–24.0) 15.0 (5.0–23.0) 17.0 (7.0–24.0)
ADL Hierarchy scale Categories N (%)
 0–1 Independent 744 (18.5) 254 (22.8) 490 (16.9) < 0.001
 2–4 Assistance required 1661 (41.4) 445 (40.0) 1216 (41.9)
 5–6 Dependent 1607 (40.0) 413 (37.1) 1194 (41.2)
PAIN scale c
 Mean ± SD 0.6 ± 0.8 0.7 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.8 < 0.001
 Median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.0)
PAIN scale categories N (%)
 0 No pain 2280 (61.2) 550 (55.2) 1730 (63.4) < 0.001
 1 Mild pain 922 (24.8) 281 (28.2) 641 (23.5)
 2 Moderate pain 395 (9.8) 110 (11.0) 285 (10.5)
 3 Severe pain 109 (2.7) 49 (4.9) 60 (2.2)
 4 Excruciating pain 17 (0.4) 6 (0.6) 11 (0.4)
CAP Delirium d
 Mean ± SD 0.3 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.8 0.18
 Median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
Depression scale e
 Mean ± SD 2.1 ± 2.7 2.6 ± 2.9 1.9 ± 2.6 < 0.001
 Median (IQR) 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0–3.0)
Depression scale Categories N (%)
 0 No clinical problems 1645 (41.5) 379 (34.5) 1266 (44.3) < 0.001
 1–2 Changes in mood, but not clinically relevant depression 1048 (26.5) 284 (25.8) 764 (26.7)
  ≥ 3 Clinically relevant depression 1268 (32.0) 437 (39.7) 831 (29.0)
Communication scale f
 Mean ± SD 3.0 ± 2.9 2.6 ± 2.8 3.1 ± 2.9 0.05
 Median (IQR) 2.0 (0.0–6.0) 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 2.0 (0.0–6.0)
Communication scale Categories N (%)
 0 Intact 1736 (42.3) 525 (47.6) 1146 (40.0) < 0.001
 1–4 Mild to moderate 1092 (26.6) 279 (25.3) 776 (27.1)
 5–8 Moderate-severe to very severe 1273 (30.6) 299 (27.1) 943 (32.9)
  1. Results in bold indicate statistically significant results
  2. a CPS – Cognitive Performance Scale [26] was used to access cognitive status. It includes five items: cognitive skills for daily decision making, short-term memory problems, procedural memory problems, making self-understood, and eating ability. Scores of CPS items range from 0 (intact) to 6 (very severe cognitive impairment), and any score ≥ 2 indicates clinically significant cognitive impairment (from mild to very severe stages)
  3. b ADL Hierarchy scale – Activities of Daily Living Hierarchy scale [25] comprises 7 items: personal hygiene, dressing upper body, dressing lower body, locomotion, toilet use, bed mobility, eating. Each item is scored from 0 = requires supervision to 4 = total dependence. The scale ranges from 0 to 28, with higher scores reflecting greater level of dependency and difficulties in performing activities
  4. c Pain scale [28] - summarizes the reported presence and intensity of pain. The scores range from 0 = no pain to 4 = daily excruciating pain
  5. d CAP Delirium [30] – this scale comprises 4 items: easily distracted, disorganized speech, mental function varies over day, change in decision making. The scale ranges from 0 to 4, with higher values indication increase likelihood of delirium
  6. e Depression scale [27] – is based on the self-reported mood items and indicates the presence of depressed mood and anxiety. It consists of 3 self-reported mood items, while each question can be scored from 0 to 2 with the maximum overall score of 6. The score of this scale range from 0 = no symptoms of depression to 6 = all symptoms present in last 3 days/24 h: high likelihood of depression
  7. f Communication scale [29] – consists of two items: making self-understood (expression) and ability to understand others (comprehension), while not taking directly into consideration hearing and visual impairment. It is primarily focused on dysphasia and similar syndromes. The scores range from 0 = intact to 8 = very severe impairment