Skip to main content

Table 3 Effects of an eight weeks home-based balance exercise program conducted during tooth brushing on measures of balance and muscle strength in healthy older adults

From: The performance of balance exercises during daily tooth brushing is not sufficient to improve balance and muscle strength in healthy older adults

  INT (n = 27)   CON (n = 24)   p-value (Cohen’s d)
Variables Pre Post Δ [%]* Pre Post Δ [%]* Time Group Group × Time
Balance
 Romberg-Test (s) 24.2 (9.2) 25.2 (9.1) + 4 21.6 (10.7) 23.3 (10.3) + 8 0.22 (0.36) 0.38 (0.26) 0.74 (0.09)
 Gait speed, ST (m/s) 1.4 (0.2) 1.5 (0.2) + 3 1.4 (0.2) 1.4 (0.1) -1 0.46 (0.21) 0.41 (0.24) 0.30 (0.30)
 Gait speed, DT-CI (m/s) 1.2 (0.4) 1.3 (0.3) + 15 1.2 (0.2) 1.3 (0.2) + 9 < 0.001 (1.12) 0.66 (0.13) 0.37 (0.26)
 Gait speed, DT-MI (m/s) 1.1 (0.3) 1.4 (0.3) + 29 1.1 (0.2) 1.3 (0.2) + 22 < 0.001 (2.65) 0.40 (0.24) 0.21 (0.36)
 TUG (s) 8.3 (1.3) 7.7 (1.2) + 7 8.3 (1.2) 8.0 (1.3) + 4 < 0.001 (1.17) 0.63 (0.14) 0.11 (0.47)
 FRT (cm) 36.2 (5.3) 38.2 (4.7) + 6 35.2 (6.6) 38.8 (5.8) + 10 0.002 (0.92) 0.90 (< 0.01) 0.34 (0.28)
Muscle strength
 Chair rise test (s) 10.1 (2.8) 8.2 (2.1) + 19 9.6 (1.7) 9.0 (1.6) + 6 0.002 (0.94) 0.77 (0.09) 0.11 (0.47)
  1. Notes: Vales are means and standard deviations in parenthesis. *A positive/negative percentage value indicates a performance improvement/decrement. d effect size; CI cognitive interference; DT dual-task; MI motor interference; FRT Functional Reach Test; ST single-task; TUG Timed Up and Go Test