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Table 2 Protocol of the eight weeks balance exercise program for the intervention group conducted twice daily during tooth brushing routines

From: The performance of balance exercises during daily tooth brushing is not sufficient to improve balance and muscle strength in healthy older adults

Balance exercise protocol
Exercises • Step stance (week 1: on stable surface [i.e., floor], week 2: on unstable surface [i.e., rolled up towel])
• Tandem stance (week 3: on stable surface, week 4: on unstable surface [i.e., rolled up towel])
• One-legged stancea (weeks 5 & 6: on stable surface, weeks 7 & 8: on unstable surface [i.e., rolled up towel])
Training load • 8 weeks
• 7 days per week
• 2 sessions per day (i.e., in the morning and the evening)
• 3 min per session
Progression during training • Continuous reduction in base of support (i.e., from step over tandem to one-legged stance) and inclusion of an unstable element (i.e., rolled up towel)
  1. aParticipants were instructed to use the dominant leg first and to switch to the non-dominant leg as they felt safe and comfortable to do so. Given that participants concurrently brushed their teeth and performed balance exercises, the applied exercise program can be considered a dual-task program including a primary balance task and a secondary motor interference task (i.e., brushing teeth)