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Table 1 Main characteristics of the whole study population and its subgroups by type of tea consumptiona

From: Type of tea consumption and depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults

Variable/subgroups Total sample No tea Green tea Fermented tea Floral tea P valueb
Total sample, n 13,115 9220 1970 1156 769  
% 100.0 70.3 15.0 8.8 5.9  
CES-D-10
 Total score 10.1 ± 4.7 10.4 ± 4.6 9.6 ± 4.8 9.5 ± 4.8 9.1 ± 4.8 < 0.001
  ≥ 10 7419 (56.6) 5454 (59.2) 1010 (51.3) 590 (51.0) 365 (47.5) < 0.001
Age, years 83.7 ± 11.2 84.5 ± 11.3 81.4 ± 10.7 81.9 ± 11.0 82.6 ± 11.1 < 0.001
Age group, years       < 0.001
 65–79 5121 (39.1) 3319 (36.0) 924 (46.9) 537 (46.5) 341 (44.3)  
 80–99 6301 (48.0) 4577 (49.6) 868 (44.1) 514 (44.5) 342 (44.5)  
  ≥ 100 1693 (12.9) 1324 (14.4) 178 (9.0) 105 (9.1) 86 (11.2)  
Women (%) 7102 (54.2) 5574 (60.5) 689 (35.0) 521 (45.1) 451 (41.4) < 0.001
Education level, years       < 0.001
 0 7003 (53.4) 5487 (59.5) 686 (34.8) 511 (44.2) 319 (41.5)  
 1–6 2643 (20.2) 1798 (19.5) 421 (21.4) 238 (20.6) 186 (24.2)  
 7+ 3469 (26.5) 1935 (21.0) 863 (43.8) 407 (35.2) 364 (34.3)  
Rural residence, % 5782 (44.1) 4335 (47.0) 726 (36.9) 446 (38.6) 275 (35.8) < 0.001
Socioeconomic status c −0.17 ± 1.00 0.08 ± 0.87 −0.31 ± 1.35 − 0.16 ± 1.01 −0.24 ± 1.10 < 0.001
Married and living with a spouse, % 5676 (43.3) 3604 (39.1) 1092 (55.4) 597 (51.6) 386 (49.8) < 0.001
Living arrangement %       < 0.001
 With household members 10,504 (80.1) 7287 (79.0) 1647 (83.6) 926 (80.1) 644 (83.8)  
 Alone 2178 (16.6) 1620 (17.6) 268 (13.6) 191 (16.5) 99 (12.9)  
 Institution 433 (3.3) 313 (3.4) 55 (2.8) 39 (3.4) 26 (3.4)  
Social and leisure activity index 3.90 ± 2.76 3.53 ± 2.63 4.91 ± 2.90 4.64 ± 2.82 4.55 ± 2.86 < 0.001
Self-rated health excellent or good, % 6317 (48.2) 4307 (46.7) 1019 (51.7) 596 (51.6) 395 (51.4) < 0.001
Current or former Smoker, % 4045 (30.8) 2312 (25.1) 922 (46.8) 470 (40.7) 341 (44.3) < 0.001
Current alcohol drinker, % 1985 (15.1) 1124 (12.2) 482 (24.5) 944 (18.3) 167 (21.7) < 0.001
BMI 22.4 ± 4.2 22.2 ± 4.2 22.8 ± 3.9 22.8 ± 4.2 23.4 ± 4.3 0.108
Regular vegetable consumption, % 11,827 (90.2) 8245 (89.4) 1819 (92.3) 1069 (92.5) 694 (90.2) < 0.001
Regular fruit consumption, % 6104 (46.5) 4041 (43.8) 1038 (52.7) 620 (53.6) 405 (52.7) < 0.001
Regular fish intake, % 6301 (48.6) 4064 (44.6) 1197 (61.5) 665 (57.8) 375 (49.4) < 0.001
Regular nut intake, % 2539 (19.6) 1510 (16.6) 521 (26.8) 252 (21.9) 256 (33.8) < 0.001
Regularly physical activity, % 9651 (73.6) 6945 (75.3) 1336 (67.8) 842 (72.8) 528 (68.7) < 0.001
Cognitive impairment, % 3300 (25.2) 2556 (27.7) 338 (17.2) 269 (23.3) 137 (17.8) < 0.001
ADL functional disability, % 2974 (22.7) 2214 (24.0) 346 (17.6) 210 (18.2) 204 (26.5)  
Medical illness, %       < 0.001
 Chronic inflammatory disorders d 5714 (43.6) 3900 (42.3) 915 (46.5) 528 (45.7) 371 (48.2)  
 Other disorders 4607 (35.1) 3295 (35.7) 650 (33.0) 408 (35.3) 254 (33.0)  
 None 2794 (21.3) 2025 (22.0) 405 (20.6) 220 (19.0) 144 (18.7)  
Comorbidity e, %       < 0.001
 Yes 606 (4.6) 376 (4.1) 124 (6.3) 49 (4.2) 57 (7.4)  
 No 12,509 (95.4) 8844 (95.9) 1846 (93.7) 1107 (95.8) 712 (92.6)  
Geographical region f, %       < 0.001
 Northern China 3157 1969 (62.4) 506 (16.0) 301 (9.5) 381 (12.1)  
 Eastern China 2842 1933 (68.0) 607 (21.4) 258 (9.1) 44 (1.5)  
 Central China 2967 2307 (77.8) 435 (14.7) 173 (5.8) 52 (1.8)  
 Southwestern China 4149 3011 (72.6) 422 (10.2) 424 (10.2) 292 (7.0)  
  1. a The percentages in the parentheses are unweighted and refer to those within each type of tea. CES-D-10 10-item of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, BMI body mass index, ADL activity of daily living
  2. b Based on chi-square test (n, %) or ANOVA (mean ± SD)
  3. c Based the first factor score of PCA from four variables (occupation, economic conditions, family income and expense)
  4. d Chronic inflammatory disorder was determined as having at least one condition of cardiovascular diseases/stroke, diabetes, asthma/COPD, arthritis, cholecystitis, nephritis, hepatitis, and gastric or duodenal ulcer
  5. e Comorbidity was determined as comorbid 5 or more in 14 medical illnesses consisting of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, heart disease, stroke, pneumonia (asthma/COPD), cataract or glaucoma, rheumatism, cancer, arthritis, cholecystitis, nephritis, hepatitis, and gastric or duodenal ulcer
  6. f Geographical regions were considered on the basis of residential address to account for tea consumption habits and dietary differences in China: Northern China (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang), Eastern China (Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian), Central China (Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Hunan), and Southwestern China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Hainan)