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Table 1 Sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of the study sample

From: Types of leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of community-dwelling persons who have been screened positive for dementia

Variable Total Sample Men Women p Value
n = 436 n = 185 n = 251  
Age, mean (SD) 80.1 (5.34) 78.52 (5.01) 81.34 (5.27) < .001b
Years of education, mean (SD) 9.55 (2.15) 10.25 (2.58) 9.02 (1.59) < .001b
Marital status Unmarried, n (%) 24 (5.5) 12 (6.5) 12 (4.8) < .001a
  Married, n (%) 193 (44.3) 124 (67.0) 69 (27.5)  
  Divorced, n (%) 29 (6.7) 10 (5.4) 19 (7.6)  
  Widowed, n (%) 190 (43.6) 39 (21.1) 151 (60.2)  
Living with partner (no), n (%) 214 (49.1) 45 (24.3) 169 (67.3) < .001a
Living alone (yes), n (%) 216 (49.5) 61 (33.0) 155 (61.8) < .001a
Living environment (urban), n (%) 291 (66.7) 118 (63.8) 173 (68.9) .260a
Support of informal caregiver (no), n (%) 136 (31.3) 56 (30.3) 80 (32.1) .680a
Support of informal caregiver (yes), n (%) Spouse/ partner, n (%) 135 (45.5) 94 (72.9) 41 (24.4) < .001a
  Daughter/ son, n (%) 110 (36.9) 24 (18.6) 86 (50.9)  
  Daughter-/ son-in-law, n (%) 15 (5.0) 3 (2.3) 12 (7.1)  
  Granddaughter/ -son, n (%) 11 (3.7) 1 (0.8) 10 (5.9)  
  Others, n (%) 27 (9.1) 7 (5.4) 20 (11.8)  
Perceived social support (F-SozU), mean (SD) 4.00 (0.67) 4.01 (0.74) 3.99 (0.61) .810b
Cognitive impairment (MMSE) Score, mean (SD) 22.72 (4.80) 23.23 (4.88) 22.33 (4.71) .053b
  None (score, 27–30), n (%) 105 (24.1) 55 (29.7) 50 (20.0) .130a
  Mild (score, 20–26), n (%) 231 (53.1) 94 (50.8) 137 (54.8)  
  Moderate (score, 10–19), n (%) 93 (21.4) 34 (18.4) 59 (23.6)  
  Severe (score, 0–9), n (%) 6 (1.4) 2 (1.1) 4 (1.6)  
Depressive symptoms (GDS > 5) (yes), n (%) 67 (15.4) 24 (13.0) 43 (17.2) .236a
Incontinence (yes), n (%) 164 (37.7) 47 (25.4) 117 (46.8) < .001a
Pain, last 4 weeks (yes), n (%) 251 (57.6) 104 (56.2) 147 (58.6) .624a
Functional impairment (B-ADL), score, mean (SD) 3.50 (2.36) 3.24 (2.27) 3.68 (2.41) .051b
Antidepressive drug treatment (yes), n (%) 63 (14.4) 12 (6.5) 51 (20.3) < .001
Quality of life (QoL-AD), score, mean (SD) 2.78 (0.36) 2.80 (0.35) 2.77 (0.37) .290b
  1. F-SozU Social Support Questionnaire, mean score 1–5, higher score indicates better social support, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, range 0–30, higher score indicates better cognitive functioning, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, sum score 0–15, score > 5 indicates depression, B-ADL Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale, range 0–10, lower score indicates better performance, QoL-AD Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease scale, mean sum score 1–4, higher score indicates better quality of life, SD Standard Deviation; aPearson’s chi-squared test; bWelch’s t-test