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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by cognitive impairment (n = 649)

From: Salivary flow rate and the risk of cognitive impairment among Korean elders: a cross-sectional study

Variable n Cognitive impairment P-value
No
(n = 406)
Yes
(n = 243)
MMSE-KC score 649 27.0 ± 1.8 19.8 ± 3.3 < 0.001
Salivary flow rate (mL/min)     0.004
 Normal ( 0.3) 414 276 (68.0) 138 (56.8)  
 Low (< 0.3) 235 130 (32.0) 105 (43.2)  
 Hyposalivation (< 0.1) 97 66 (16.2) 31 (12.8)  
Denture status     0.2
 Dentate 378 244 (60.1) 134 (55.1)  
 Denture 271 162 (39.9) 109 (44.9)  
Age (year) 649 75.8 ± 5.2 76.8 ± 5.5 0.03
Sex     0.17
 Male 211 140 (34.5) 71 (29.2)  
 Female 438 266 (65.5) 172 (70.8)
Education level     < 0.001
 Junior school 495 287 (70.7) 208 (85.6)  
 High school 154 119 (29.3) 35 (14.4)
Smokinga     0.02
 No 441 262 (64.5) 179 (73.7)  
 Yes 208 144 (35.5) 64 (26.3)
Drinkingb     0.001
 No 219 118 (29.1) 101 (41.6)  
 Yes 430 288 (70.9) 142 (58.4)
HbA1C 649 6.05 ± 0.8 6.12 ± 0.9 0.1
Diabetesc     0.09
 No 451 292 (71.9) 159 (65.4)  
 Yes 198 114 (28.1) 84 (34.6)
Hypertensiond     0.03
 No 298 173 (42.6) 125 (51.4)  
 Yes 351 233 (57.4) 118 (48.6)
Obesitye     0.01
 No 362 211 (52.0) 151 (62.1)  
 Yes 287 195 (48.0) 92 (37.9)
  1. Data are presented as numbers (raw percentage) for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables
  2. P-values were obtained by Chi-square test for categorical variables and T-test for continuous variables
  3. aSmoking: “No” refers to never smoked and “Yes” refers to past and current smoker
  4. bAlcohol intake: No refers to never drunken, and “Yes” refers to past and current drinker
  5. cDiabetes was determined as “Yes” if fasting plasma glucose > 126 mg/dL or HbA1C ≥ 6.5% or a history of diabetes
  6. dHypertension was determined as “Yes” if systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or taking hypertension medication
  7. eObesity: Body mass index (kg/m2) ≥ 25
  8. MMSE-KC: Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination in the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K)