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Table 2 Effect of CVD and Covariates on Incidence of Cognitive Impairment per Subdistribution Hazard Regression Model

From: Cardiovascular disease and cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment in the Health and Retirement Study

Variable Subdistribution Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Incident CVD 0.96 (0.85–1.09)
Age (yrs) 1.06 (1.05–1.07)
Male gender 1.10 (0.97–1.25)
Race & Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.79 (1.47–2.18)
 Hispanic 1.33 (1.05–1.67)
 Other 1.45 (0.93–2.28)
Education level
 Less than high school 1.82 (1.55–2.15)
 High school 1.38 (1.21–1.58)
BMI (kg/m^2) 0.99 (0.97–1.00)
Married 0.965 (0.88–1.14)
Depressive symptoms 1.23 (1.03–1.48)
Smoking currently 1.18 (0.95–1.44)
Drinking behavior (past 3 mos)
 Not drinking 0.909 (0.52–1.62)
 Low-risk drinker 0.67 (0.39–1.23)
Hypertension 1.05 (0.92–1.19)
Diabetes 1.01 (0.87–1.19)
Chronic lung disease 0.94 (0.76–1.15)
Cancer 0.94 (0.81–1.10)
  1. Race and ethnicity is defined based on participants’ primary response, and ‘other’ for race and ethnicity is defined as American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, or something else. Low-risk drinking is defined as 7 drinks or fewer per week or 3 drinks or fewer per day for women, or 14 drinks or fewer per week or 4 drinks or fewer per day for men on average over the past 3 months
  2. Abbreviations: CVD cardiovascular disease, BMI body mass index