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Table 4 Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components With Performance on Cognitive function by MoCA in Older Adults (N = 365)

From: Associations of sarcopenia and its defining components with cognitive function in community-dwelling oldest old

Global cognitive function Sarcopenia P Value Low muscle mass P Value Low muscle strength P Value Low walking speed P Value
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Unadjusted Model −1.382(−2.488 ~ − 0.276) 0.014 −0.798(− 1.860 ~ 0.263) 0.140 −2.694(−3.717 ~ − 1.671) <.001 − 1.165(− 2.268 ~ − 0.061) 0.039
Model 1 −1.306(− 2.422 ~ − 0.190) 0.022 − 0.693(− 1.747 ~ 0.361) 0.197 −2.431(− 3.476 ~ − 1.386) <.001 −1.029(− 2.126 ~ 0.068) 0.066
Model 2 − 0.848(− 2.108 ~ 0.412) 0.186 − 0.195(− 1.426 ~ 1.036) 0.755 −2.125(− 3.217 ~ − 1.034) 0.022 − 0.806(− 1.977 ~ 0.364) 0.176
Visuospatial & Executive function β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model − 0.329(− 0.663 ~ 0.006) 0.054 − 0.250(− 0.571 ~ 0.071) 0.127 − 0.782(− 1.115 ~ − 0.448) <.001 − 0.404(− 0.741 ~ − 0.067) 0.019
Model 1 − 0.265(− 0.600 ~ 0.070) 0.12 − 0.199(− 0.515 ~ 0.118) 0.218 − 0.705(− 1.048 ~ − 0.363) <.001 −0.369(− 0.702 ~ − 0.036) 0.03
Model 2 − 0.149(− 0.534 ~ 0.236) 0.446 −0.050(− 0.426 ~ 0.325) 0.792 − 0.775(− 1.139 ~ − 0.412) <.001 − 0.059(− 0.252 ~ 0.133) 0.544
Naming β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model −0.005(− 0.180 ~ 0.170) 0.952 − 0.024(− 0.195 ~ 0.146) 0.78 − 0.218(− 0.384 ~ − 0.053) 0.01 −0.046(− 0.222 ~ 0.130) 0.608
Model 1 −0.001(− 0.181 ~ 0.178) 0.988 − 0.020(− 0.193 ~ 0.153) 0.819 −0.225(− 0.398 ~ − 0.051) 0.011 −0.032(− 0.209 ~ 0.146) 0.725
Model 2 0.170(−0.031 ~ 0.372) 0.097 0.189(−0.011 ~ 0.389) 0.064 −0.214(− 0.396 ~ − 0.033) 0.021 0.056(− 0.116 ~ 0.228) 0.523
Attention β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model −0.191(−0.477 ~ 0.096) 0.191 −0.262(− 0.547 ~ 0.023) 0.071 −0.414(− 0.687 ~ − 0.141) 0.003 −0.179(− 0.466 ~ 0.108) 0.22
Model 1 −0.177(− 0.463 ~ 0.109 0.223 −0.245(− 0.526 ~ 0.037) 0.088 −0.384(− 0.661 ~ − 0.107) 0.007 −0.148(− 0.429 ~ 0.133) 0.3
Model 2 −0.043(− 0.368 ~ 0.283) 0.797 −0.176(− 0.510 ~ 0.157) 0.298 −0.263(− 0.561 ~ 0.035) 0.083 −0.050(− 0.355 ~ 0.256) 0.75
Language β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model −0.096(−0.276 ~ 0.084) 0.294 −0.129(− 0.300 ~ 0.041) 0.137 − 0.147(− 0.316 ~ 0.022) 0.087 −0.008(− 0.192 ~ 0.175) 0.982
Model 1 −0.042(− 0.222 ~ 0.137) 0.643 −0.081(− 0.249 ~ 0.086) 0.341 −0.031(− 0.202 ~ 0.139) 0.719 0.037(− 0.142 ~ 0.217) 0.683
Model 2 −0.065(− 0.271 ~ 0.142) 0.536 −0.121(− 0.320 ~ 0.077 0.23 0.014(− 0.168 ~ 0.196) 0.879 0.082–0.116 ~ 0.280 0.417
Delayed recall β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model −0.338(−0.698 ~ 0.022) 0.066 −0.287(− 0.627 ~ 0.052) 0.097 − 0.923(− 1.260 ~ − 0.586) <.001 −0.323(− 0.688 ~ 0.042) 0.083
Model 1 −0.278(− 0.643 ~ 0.086) 0.134 −0.232(− 0.571 ~ 0.107) 0.179 −0.826(− 1.168 ~ − 0.484) <.001 −0.229(− 0.591 ~ 0.132) 0.213
Model 2 −0.282(− 0.704 ~ 0.140) 0.189 −0.219(− 0.626 ~ 0.187) 0.29 −0.853(− 1.214 ~ − 0.491) <.001 −0.195(− 0.593 ~ 0.204) 0.338
Abstraction β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model −0.087(−0.252 ~ 0.078) 0.229 −0.069(− 0.227 ~ 0.088) 0.386 − 0.131(− 0.287 ~ 0.025) 0.101 −0.184(− 0.351 ~ − 0.0177) 0.031
Model 1 −0.056(− 0.221 ~ 0.108) 0.501 −0.042(− 0.198 ~ 0.113) 0.591 −0.086(− 0.244 ~ 0.072) 0.285 −0.150-0.315 ~ 0.015 0.075
Model 2 −0.015(− 0.207 ~ 0.178) 0.881 − 0.004(− 0.192 ~ 0.184) 0.967 −0.094(− 0.264 ~ 0.076) 0.277 −0.177(− 0.360 ~ 0.007) 0.059
Orientation β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value β (95% CI) P Value
Unadjusted Model −0.198(−0.430 ~ 0.033) 0.093 −0.241(− 0.482 ~ 0.000) 0.05 − 0.143(− 0.377 ~ 0.090) 0.229 −0.015(− 0.250 ~ 0.219) 0.897
Model 1 −0.184(− 0.421 ~ 0.053) 0.128 −0.224(− 0.468 ~ 0.019) 0.071 −0.088(− 0.331 ~ 0.156) 0.48 −0.008(− 0.243 ~ 0.227) 0.946
Model 2 0.030(−0.238 ~ 0.298) 0.826 −0.012(− 0.298 ~ 0.273) 0.932 −0.033(− 0.291 ~ 0.224) 0.8 0.021(− 0.234 ~ 0.276) 0.873
  1. Model 0: unadjusted model
  2. Model 1: linear regression adjusted for age, sex, race, and education
  3. Model 2: linear regression adjusted for age, sex, race, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking status, current alcohol intake, depression, Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, previous history of coronary artery disease, and obesity