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Table 1 Participant’s Characteristics According to Sarcopenia by 2019 AWGS criteria (N = 428)

From: Associations of sarcopenia and its defining components with cognitive function in community-dwelling oldest old

  Overall Without Sarcopenia With Sarcopenia P Value
(n = 428) (n = 276) (n = 152)
Age (years), mean ± SD 86.34 ± 3.57 85.72 ± 3.34 87.48 ± 3.68 <.001
Female, n (%) 304 (60.32%) 171 (61.96%) 81 (53.29%) 0.081
Higher Education (above high school), n (%) 247 (49.40%) 139 (50.55%) 71 (47.02%) 0.78
Married, n (%) 298 (59.72%) 164 (59.42%) 93 (62.00%) 0.603
BMI, (kg/m2) 24.13 ± 4.61 25.12 ± 4.30 22.23 ± 2.82 <.001
Obesity, n (%) 108 (21.43%) 56 (20.29%) 5 (3.29%)  
Low physical activity 240 (47.62%) 126 (45.65%) 77 (50.66%) 0.927
Smoke Status, n (%)     0.79
Previous smoker 8 (1.60%) 5 (1.82%) 3 (1.97%)  
Current smoker 86 (17.20%) 45 (16.42%) 26 (17.11%)  
Never smoker 403 (80.60%) 221 (80.66%) 123 (80.92%)  
Current Alcohol Use (> = 2–3 time/week), n (%) 253 (51.52%) 132 (48.88%) 80 (53.34%) 0.353
High comorbidity (Charlsen comorbidity index > 2) 115 (22.82%) 58 (21.01%) 33 (21.71%) 0.866
Hypertension, n (%) 362 (73.43%) 204 (74.73%) 104 (70.75%) 0.379
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 137 (27.57%) 74 (27.21%) 42 (27.81%) 0.893
History of Coronary Artery Disease, n (%) 264 (53.88%) 148 (54.61%) 73 (49.66%) 0.333
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), n (%) 152 (35.51%) 48 (17.39%) 44 (28.95%) 0.005
Depression, n (%) 47 (9.33%) 23 (8.33%) 10 (6.58%) 0.646
Poor Self-reported Health, n (%) 176 (35.20%) 80 (28.99%) 57 (38.00%) 0.057
MNA-SF(<=11) 65 (12.90%) 21 (7.61%) 31 (20.39%) <.001
Physical function
Handgrip Strength (kg),median (IQR) 22.8 (19.2–27.7) 23.8 (20.6–29.1) 20.65 (17.6–25.1) <.001
Usual gait speed(m/s),median (IQR) 0.85 (0.67–1.02) 0.93 (0.73–1.06) 0.79 (0.64–0.94) <.001
Time get up and go test (s),median (IQR) 11.92 (9.87–15.09) 11.51 (9.71–14.23) 13.44 (10.37–16.32) 0.011
Five times Sit-to-stand(s),median (IQR) 14 (11.25–16.78) 13.57 (11.19–15.75) 15.00 (11.81–20.00) 0.011
SMI, median (IQR)
Appendicular Lean Mass index (kg/m2) 6.32 (5.71–7.04) 6.62 (6.04–7.54) 5.60 (5.24–6.51) 0.425
Appendicular Lean Mass to BMI ratio 0.69 (0.58–0.82) 0.72 (0.62–0.83) 0.65 (0.54–0.78) 0.477
  1. Notes: Values are means (± SD), median (inter - quartile range) or numbers (percentages). BMI body mass index, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment. p-values are based on the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and the Mann–Whitney U test. Comorbidities were hypertension, myocardial infarction, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, osteoarthritis, rheumarthritis, osteoporosis, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as diagnosed by a physician