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Table 3 MMSE and WHO-5-J scores in the GCF and UC groups

From: Rice farming care as a novel method of green care farm in East Asian context: an implementation research

  RFC group GCF (N = 15) UC group (N = 14) Interaction
Mean ± SD of pre Mean ± SD of post T-value of paired t-test P-value Mean ± SD of pre Mean ± SD of post T-value of paired t-test P-value F-value P-value
Score of MMSE 20.8 ± 4.3 21.6 ± 4.2a −1.364 0.196 18.2 ± 7.7 19.0 ± 7.6b 1.443 0.175 0.068 0.797
Score of WHO-5-J 17.5 ± 6.7 20.5 ± 3.7 −2.761 0.015 17.6 ± 4.8 16.5 ± 6.7 1.086 0.297 6.472 0.017
  1. MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WHO-5-J The Japanese version of the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index
  2. aN of missing value = 1
  3. bN of missing value = 1