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Table 3 Results of multi-group analysis

From: Caregiving burnout of community-dwelling people with dementia in Hong Kong and New Zealand: a cross-sectional study

  Not using allied health services Using allied health services
HK NZ HK NZ
AOR (95CI) AOR (95CI) AOR (95CI) AOR (95CI)
Demographic Information of care-recipient
 Female 1.01 (0.87, 1.16) 0.87 (0.78, 0.98)* 0.46 (0.16, 1.34) 0.90 (0.70, 1.17)
 Age
  65–74 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  75–84 1.10 (0.90, 1.33) 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 0.63 (0.17, 2.32) 0.88 (0.61, 1.28)
  85+ 1.23 (1.00, 1.51)* 1.04 (0.88, 1.22) 0.51 (0.12, 2.22) 0.83 (0.57, 1.23)
 Marital Status
  Never married/Widowed/Separated/Divorced/Other 0.89 (0.72, 1.09) 1.05 (0.82, 1.33) 1.23 (0.25, 6.07) 0.59 (0.32, 1.09)
  Married/Civil Union/Defacto Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Living arrangement
  Alone Ref*** Ref Ref Ref
  With spouse/partner only 0.88 (0.61, 1.28) 1.41 (1.06, 1.88)* 0.10 (0.01, 1.73) 1.19 (0.57, 2.49)
  With spouse/partner and others 0.73 (0.51, 1.04) 1.16 (0.87, 1.55) 0.13 (0.01, 1.93) 1.60 (0.78, 3.28)
  With child 0.60 (0.47, 0.78)*** 1.06 (0.78, 1.43) 0.07 (0.01, 0.54)* 0.56 (0.27, 1.19)
 Perceived to be better-off living elsewhere 2.74 (2.38, 3.15)*** 5.83 (5.19, 6.56)*** 3.90 (1.36, 11.15)* 4.68 (3.41, 6.42)***
Health and functional status of care-recipient
 Stay in hospital within 7 days 1.05 (0.87, 1.28) 0.84 (0.73, 0.97)* 0.06 (0.01, 0.45)** 0.86 (0.56, 1.35)
 Hearing
  Adequate Ref*** Ref* Ref Ref
  Minimal difficulty 0.81 (0.70, 0.92)** 0.93 (0.82, 1.06) 0.87 (0.31, 2.46) 0.94 (0.70, 1.26)
  Moderate to severe difficulty 1.15 (0.97, 1.37) 1.15 (1.00, 1.33)* 1.22 (0.29, 5.22) 0.99 (0.73, 1.36)
 Vision
  Adequate Ref*** Ref Ref Ref
  Minimal difficulty 1.01 (0.88, 1.16) 1.01 (0.88, 1.15) 0.39 (0.14, 1.09) 0.94 (0.71, 1.26)
  Moderate to severe difficulty 0.67 (0.53, 0.85)*** 1.11 (0.92, 1.33) 0.96 (0.25, 3.73) 0.69 (0.46, 1.05)
 3+ IADL items with difficulties 1.98 (0.89, 4.39) 1.20 (0.84, 1.71) NA 0.59 (0.12, 2.89)
 ADL Hierarchy Scale
  Independent Ref Ref*** Ref Ref
  Supervision 1.01 (0.86, 1.18) 1.44 (1.25, 1.65)*** 1.14 (0.26, 4.97) 1.10 (0.71, 1.69)
  Limited to Total dependence 1.09 (0.93, 1.27) 1.35 (1.17, 1.56)*** 1.86 (0.49, 7.09) 0.91 (0.59, 1.39)
 Fall in last 90 days 1.05 (0.92, 1.19) 1.11 (0.99, 1.24) 1.47 (0.57, 3.75) 1.05 (0.82, 1.36)
 Behavioral problems in past 3 days 1.59 (1.40, 1.81)*** 1.56 (1.38, 1.76)*** 2.33 (0.75, 7.23) 1.35 (1.04, 1.77)*
 Mood problem in past 3 days 1.53 (1.31, 1.80)*** 1.89 (1.65, 2.15)*** 1.64 (0.43, 6.28) 1.18 (0.85, 1.64)
 Comorbidity
  Dementia only Ref*** Ref Ref Ref
  Stroke & Dementia 0.70 (0.53, 0.93)* 0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.30 (0.03, 3.66) 1.00 (0.69, 1.45)
  CVD & Dementia 0.94 (0.80, 1.11) 1.05 (0.93, 1.18) 0.74 (0.21, 2.66) 0.93 (0.70, 1.25)
  CVD, Stroke & Dementia 0.76 (0.64, 0.91)** 0.92 (0.74, 1.13) 0.64 (0.17, 2.39) 1.10 (0.73, 1.68)
Caregiver characteristics
 Primary caregiver relationship with care-recipient
  Child or child-in-law 1.58 (1.32, 1.90)*** 1.15 (0.91, 1.44) 0.64 (0.17, 2.36) 1.34 (0.84, 2.14)
  Spouse/Partner/significant other 3.22 (2.54, 4.07)*** 1.32 (0.96, 1.81) 2.55 (0.61, 10.62) 2.57 (1.22, 5.41)*
  Parent/guardian/Sibling/Other relative or whanau/friends Ref*** Ref Ref Ref*
 Primary caregiver lives with care-recipient 0.92 (0.77, 1.10) 1.57 (1.21, 2.05)*** 0.87 (0.19, 3.95) 2.33 (1.24, 4.38)**
 Primary caregiver provides IADL care 1.19 (0.82, 1.74) 0.83 (0.69, 1.00)* 3.82 (0.26, 57.02) 0.84 (0.62, 1.13)
 Primary caregiver provides ADL care 3.02 (2.47, 3.69)*** 1.24 (1.08, 1.41)** 0.57 (0.12, 2.80) 1.00 (0.73, 1.38)
 Primary caregiver provides more than 21 h of care in 7 days 1.52 (1.31, 1.77)*** 1.34 (1.18, 1.52)*** 2.46 (0.80, 7.63) 1.22 (0.85, 1.75)
  1. ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living
  2. P-value of interaction value is denoted as *: < 0.05; **:< 0.01; ***:< 0.001