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Table 1 Demographic information of living-with-dementia adults aged 65+ and their caregivers

From: Caregiving burnout of community-dwelling people with dementia in Hong Kong and New Zealand: a cross-sectional study

  HK (n = 9796) NZ (n = 16,725)
n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) n (%) Crude OR (95% CI)
Outcome: Caregiver burnout *** 1523 (15.5) N/A 2322 (13.9) N/A
 Caregiver feeling distress 3937 (40.2) N/A 5265 (31.5) N/A
 Caregiver unable to continue to care 4926 (50.3) N/A 4187 (25.1) N/A
Demographic Information of care-recipient
 Female 5899 (60.2) 0.72 (0.65, 0.81) 9564 (57.2) 0.71 (0.65, 0.78)
 Age
  65–74 1148 (11.7) Ref 2764 (16.5) Ref
  75–84 4436 (45.3) 0.96 (0.81, 1.15) 7713 (46.1) 1.05 (0.92, 1.19)
  85+ 4212 (43.0) 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 6248 (37.4) 1.05 (0.92, 1.19)
 Marital Status
  Never married/widowed/separated/divorced/other 5798 (59.2) 1.69 (1.51, 1.88) 7999 (47.8) 1.78 (1.62, 1.95)
  Married/civil union/defacto 3998 (40.8) Ref 8721 (52.1) Ref
 Living arrangement ***
  Alone 624 (6.4) Ref 5526 (33.0) Ref
  With spouse/partner only 888 (9.1) 1.91 (1.48, 2.47) 7419 (44.4) 2.15 (1.93, 2.40)
  With spouse/partner and others 1521 (15.5) 1.29 (1.01, 1.65) 1500 (9.0) 1.73 (1.46, 2.05)
  With child or others 6763 (69.0) 0.73 (0.58, 0.92) 2280 (13.6) 1.48 (1.27, 1.72)
 Perceived to be better-off living elsewhere *** 6262 (63.9) 2.32 (2.04, 2.64) 4994 (29.9) 1.63 (1.48, 1.79)
Ethnicity
 Chinese N/A N/A 218 (1.3) 1.16 (0.80, 1.68)
 Asian other than Chinese N/A N/A 212 (1.3) 0.86 (0.57, 1.31)
 European N/A N/A 14,322 (85.6) 0.91 (0.80, 1.04)
 Maori N/A N/A 1077 (6.4) 0.97 (0.81, 1.16)
 Middle Eastern/Latin American/African N/A N/A 84 (0.5) 1.03 (0.56, 1.91)
 Pacific peoples N/A N/A 687 (4.1) 0.71 (0.55, 0.91)
 Others N/A N/A 118 (0.7) 1.34 (0.84, 2.16)
Language use
 Cantonese/ Mandarin/ Other Chinese dialect 9732 (99.3) Ref N/A N/A
 English 14 (0.1) 0.90 (0.20, 4.04) N/A N/A
 Other dialect 50 (0.5) 0.60 (0.24, 1.52) N/A N/A
Health and functional status of care-recipient
 Stay in hospital within 7 days *** 1102 (11.2) 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 4474 (26.8) 1.63 (1.48, 1.79)
 Hearing*
  Adequate 3890 (39.7) Ref 8815 (52.7) Ref
  Minimal difficulty 4229 (43.2) 0.83 (0.74, 0.94) 4499 (26.9) 1.00 (0.90, 1.11)
  Moderate to severe difficulty 1677 (17.1) 1.09 (0.994, 1.27) 3407 (20.4) 1.35 (1.21, 1.51)
 Vision ***
  Adequate 2932 (29.9) Ref 12,155 (72.7) Ref
  Minimal difficulty 5743 (58.6) 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 3261 (19.5) 1.19 (1.07, 1.33)
  Moderate to severe difficulty 1121 (11.4) 0.75 (0.61, 0.91) 1305 (7.8) 1.41 (1.21, 1.64)
 3+ IADL items with difficulties 9672 (98.7) 3.11 (1.56, 7.36) 15,901 (95.1) 3.29 (2.39, 4.53)
 ADL Hierarchy Scale ***
  Independent 3723 (38.0) Ref 7392 (44.2) Ref
  Supervision 2163 (22.1) 0.99 (0.85, 1.14) 4115 (24.6) 2.28 (2.03, 2.56)
  Limited to total dependence 3910 (39.9) 0.87 (0.77, 0.99) 5217 (31.2) 2.63 (2.36, 2.93)
 Fall in last 90 days 3029 (30.9) 1.17 (1.04, 1.31) 6356 (38.0) 1.38 (1.26, 1.50)
 Behavioral problems in past 3 days *** 2317 (23.7) 1.90 (1.68, 2.13) 3162 (18.9) 2.61 (2.37, 2.87)
 Mood problem in past 3 days *** 1304 (13.4) 1.74 (1.51, 2.00) 2117 (12.7) 2.51 (2.25, 2.80)
 Comorbidity
  Dementia only 1715 (17.5) Ref 10,008 (59.8) Ref
  Stroke & dementia 637 (6.5) 0.71 (0.54, 0.92) 1337 (8.0) 1.05 (0.89, 1.24)
  CVD & dementia 4272 (43.6) 0.90 (0.78, 1.04) 4274 (25.6) 1.06 (0.95, 1.17)
  CVD, stroke & dementia 3172 (32.4) 0.79 (0.68, 0.93) 1106 (6.6) 1.21 (1.02, 1.44)
Caregiver characteristics
 Primary caregiver relationship with care-recipient
  Child or child-in-law 5503 (56.2) 1.27 (1.08, 1.50) 7420 (44.4) 1.16 (0.97, 1.38)
  Spouse/partner/significant other 2303 (23.5) 2.92 (2.46, 3.46) 7653 (45.8) 2.07 (1.73, 2.46)
  Parent/guardian/sibling/other relative or whanau/friends 1990 (20.3) Ref 1652 (9.9) Ref
 Primary caregiver lives with care-recipient *** 4629 (47.3) 1.50 (2.35, 1.68) 10,691 (63.9) 1.99 (1.79, 2.20)
 Primary caregiver provides IADL care *** 9171 (93.6) 2.98 (2.17, 4.23) 14,535 (86.9) 0.80 (0.71, 0.91)
 Primary caregiver provides ADL care 7440 (75.9) 3.22 (2.72, 3.85) 7979 (47.7) 1.64 (1.50, 1.79)
 Primary caregiver provides more than 21 h of care in a week 2504 (25.6) 1.65 (1.47, 1.85) 7192 (43.0) 1.44 (1.32, 1.57)
Formal care services utilization of care-recipient
 Home services*** 166 (1.7) 2.60 (1.86, 3.61) 4157 (24.9) 0.94 (0.85, 1.04)
 Visiting nurse* 600 (6.1) 1.37 (1.11, 1.69) 963 (5.8) 0.98 (0.81, 1.18)
 Allied-health services *** 407 (4.2) 0.45 (0.31, 0.64) 2074 (12.4) 1.50 (1.33, 1.69)
 Hospital services ** 5753 (58.7) 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) 5934 (35.5) 1.37 (1.25, 1.50)
  1. ADL activities of daily living, CVD cardiovascular diseases, IADL instrumental activities of daily living
  2. P-value of interaction value is denoted as *: < 0.05; **:< 0.01; ***:< 0.001