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Table 3 Mediation Effect of Perceived Stress and Depression on the Relationship Between Neuropsychiatric Symptoms on Caregiver Burden Scoresa

From: Perceived stress and depressive symptoms not neuropsychiatric symptoms predict caregiver burden in Alzheimer’s disease: a cross-sectional study

  Outcome: ZBI-12   Product of coefficients p-value Bootstrapping
Bias-corrected 95%CI
Point estimate SE Lower limit Upper limit
Model 1 (R2 = 0.178) Predictor: NPI Mediator: -      
Total/direct effect   0.339 0.109 0.002 0.150 0.513
Model 2 (R2 = 0.366) Predictor: NPI Mediator: PHQ-9      
Total effect   0.339 0.119 0.002 0.148 0.513
Direct effect       
- NPI   0.206 0.101 0.040 0.041 0.366
Indirect effect       
-via PHQ-9   0.133 0.049 0.006 0.082 0.293
Model 3 (R2 = 0.393) Predictor: NPI Mediator: PSS      
Total effect   0.339 0.109 0.002 0.205 0.595
Direct effect       
- NPI   0.179 0.110 0.104 −0.004 0.355
Indirect effect       
-via PSS   0.160 0.058 0.006 0.086 0.351
Model 4 (R2 = 0.459) Predictor: NPI Mediator: PSS/PHQ-9      
Total effect   0.340 0.109 0.002 0.151 0.513
Direct effect       
-NPI   0.134 0.099 0.177 −0.030 0.293
Indirect   0.206 0.061 0.001 0.119 0.318
- via PSS   0.117 0.049 0.016 0.050 0.214
- via PHQ-9   0.089 0.042 0.036 0.033 0.185
  1. SE Standard Error, CI Confidence Interval, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaires, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, ZBI Zarit Burden Interview
  2. aCovariates were accounted for, i.e. Age, sex, years of education, level of clinical dementia rating, and level of activity of daily life