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Table 3 Lifestyle behaviours, components of metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics of the cohort and those with and without sarcopenia

From: Understanding factors associated with sarcopenic obesity in older African women from a low-income setting: a cross-sectional analysis

Variables Cohort No sarcopenia Sarcopenia P value
Components of metabolic syndrome, inflammation, iron and vitamin D N = 121 N = 88 N = 33  
 Metabolic Syndrome n(%) 89 (73.0) 60 (68.2) 29 (85.3) 0.047
 Waist Circumference (cm) 99.7 ± 15.1 97.1 ± 14.8 106.4 ± 13.7 0.002
 Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 71.2 (64.7–78.9) 70.5 ± 12.1 74.3 ± 11.2 0.059
 Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 131.5 (118.9–172.7) 131.5 (119.1–148.4) 130.7 (117.7–146.0) 0.873
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.1 (4.8–6.4) 5.0 (4.7–6.4) 5.2 (4.8–6.2) 0.517
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.2 (1.0–1.8) 0.049
 High-Density Lipoprotein (mmol/L) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.440
 C-Reactive Protein (mg/L)* 5.7 (2.2–8.7) 4.1 (1.9–7.4) 7.9 (4.2–12.8) < 0.001
 Ferritin (ng/mL)* 112.1 (63.2–180.4) 127.2 (73.1–196.3) 85.0 (54.1–135.9) 0.014
 Vitamin D-25OH (ng/mL) 13.0 (11.0–17.0) 13.0 (11.0–17.0) 13.0 (10.8–16.8) 0.771
Sociodemographics N = 122 N = 88 N = 34  
 Asset Index (n) 8 (6–9) 8 (6–9) 8 (6–9) 0.599
 Children supported in household (n) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–2) 2 (1–3) 0.024
 Housing Density 1.0 (0.6–1.4) 1.0 (0.6–1.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.474
 Food Insecurity (HFIAS) 6 (3–11) 7 (3–13) 6 (3–8) 0.088
 Estimated Monthly Food Cost (US$) 90 (67–167) 90 (60–127) 93 (67–122) 0.738
 Previous Smoker n(%) 5 (4.1) 2 (2.3) 3 (8.8) 0.036
 Current Smoker n(%) 11 (9.0) 11 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0.145
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour N = 116 N = 83 N = 33  
 Daily light PA (%) 37.1 ± 9.3 37.9 ± 9.8 35.0 ± 7.4 0.127
 Daily MVPA (%) 1.0 (0.3–1.8) 1.0 (0.3–1.8) 0.95 (0.2–1.9) 0.765
 Light PA (min/day) 326.2 ± 91.0 335.1 ± 94.9 303.4 ± 76.9 0.097
 MVPA (min/day) 9.1 (2.3–15.9) 9.1 (2.5–15.9) 8.4 (1.4–15.8) 0.757
 Daily Step count (n) 6848 (5122–8784) 7574 ± 3417 6037 ± 2431 0.020
 Upright (min/day) 415.3 ± 125.9 422.8 ± 126.5 396.5 ± 124.5 0.312
 Standing (min/day) 317.4 ± 107.0 319.6 ± 104.7 311.7 ± 114.2 0.720
 Stepping (min/day) 97.9 ± 38.7 103.1 ± 40.9 84.8 ± 29.0 0.021
 Sitting (min/day) 402.4 ± 113.4 401.1 ± 106.6 405.7 ± 130.7 0.973
 Napping (min/day) 28.3 (0.0–64.1) 35.4 (0–67.4) 28.2 (13.7–51.8) 0.674
 Sleeping (min/day) 568.6 (499.7–629.1) 566.1 (499.5–629.8) 582.3 (499.4–629.8) 0.592
 Sitting bouts > 30 min (n/day) 4 ± 1 4 ± 1 4 ± 2 0.414
 Sitting bouts > 60 min (n/day) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–2) 0.206
 Sitting time > 30 min (min/day) 213.8 ± 92.3 206.5 ± 84.6 232.3 ± 108.6 0.175
 Sitting time > 60 min (min/day) 92.8 (51.1–161.8) 89.5 (51.0–147.8) 104.7 (52.8–192.1) 0.259
 Sit to stand transitions (n/day) 38 ± 12 40 (32–46) 33 (26–42) 0.007
Dietary intake: Macronutrients N = 103 N = 74 N = 29  
 Energy Intake (KJ) 7646 (5994–9991) 7870 (6057–10,361) 7462 (5903–8678) 0.278
 Carbohydrates (%EI) 64.8 ± 7.2 64.8 ± 7.0 64.9 ± 7.7 0.940
 Protein (%EI) 12.3 ± 2.1 12.3 ± 2.0 12.5 ± 2.5 0.648
 Animal Protein (%EI) 5.8 ± 2.4 5.7 (4.0–7.7) 5.4 (4.1–7.7) 0.883
 Plant Protein (%EI) 6.5 ± 1.5 6.4 (4.5–7.3) 6.3 (5.3–7.6) 0.797
 Total Fat (%EI) 21.2 (17.5–25.1) 21.3 (17.4–25.1) 21.2 (17.1–24.3) 0.843
 PUFA (%EI) 5.7 (4.1–7.5) 5.7 (4.1–7.4) 5.7 (4.0–8.1) 0.889
 MUFA (%EI) 6.7 (5.2–8.1) 6.7 (5.1–8.1) 6.6 (5.3–8.2) 0.982
 Saturated Fat (%EI) 6.5 ± 2.2 6.5 ± 2.3 6.6 ± 2.2 0.901
 Added sugar (%EI) 12.7 (8.6–18.0) 11.7 (8.4–18.1) 13.3 (9.0–18.0) 0.585
 Cholesterol (g/4200 KJ) 73.7 (53.2–109.8) 72.7 (52.6–108.9) 88.4 ± 46.9 0.730
 Fibre (g/4200 KJ) 14.1 (11.6–17.0) 14.1 (11.6–16.8) 13.9 (11.6–17.3) 0.708
Dietary intake: Food Groups N = 110 N = 81 N = 29  
 Milk and Dairy products (%EI) 7.2 (3.6–12.4) 7.8 (3.5–12.4) 7.0 (3.6–12.6) 0.585
 Fats and oils (%EI) 3.4 (1.2–6.4) 3.5 (1.3–6.2) 3.0 (1.0–8.0) 0.916
 Animal protein foods (%EI) 9.4 (5.7–13.6) 9.0 (5.5–13.1) 10.1 (6.1–14.9) 0.362
 Fruit (%EI) 6.4 (3.0–11.1) 6.1 (3.0–10.8) 7.2 (2.9–13.6) 0.900
 Vegetables (%EI) 2.6 (1.6–4.9) 2.6 (1.5–4.8) 2.4 (1.7–5.9) 0.585
 Legumes (%EI) 1.7 (0.0–3.6) 1.8 (0.0–3.1) 1.5 (0.0–5.2) 0.758
 Cooked Porridge (%EI) 8.4 (5.0–15.8) 9.0 (4.3–16.5) 7.8 (5.1–14.9) 0.732
 Starchy grains (%EI) 31.1 ± 11.4 31.4 ± 10.7 30.1 ± 13.4 0.596
 Savoury snacks, dishes and sauces (%EI) 0.8 (0.0–2.0) 0.8 (0.0–2.3) 0.7 (0.1–1.8) 0.948
 Sugar and sugary foods (%EI) 14.9 (10.1–20.8) 14.8 (9.6–21.2) 15.1 (10.4–19.8) 0.922
 Nuts and seeds (%EI) 0 (0–1.9) 0 (0–2.0) 0 (0–1.8) 0.905
 Alcohol (%EI) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.225
  1. All normally distributed are reported as mean ± SD and and skewed data as median (IQR – 25-75th percentile). Abbreviation: HFIAS Household food insecurity access scale, PA Physical activity, EI Energy intake, MVPA Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty-acids. P values represent a significant difference between those with and without sarcopenia. Parametric and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney U) independent t-tests were conducted on normally distributed and skewed data, respectively. *CRP, cohort (n = 104), no sarcopenia (n = 73), sarcopenia (n = 33); Ferritin, cohort (n = 111), no sarcopenia (n = 81), sarcopenia (n = 33)