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Table 2 Body composition, fat distribution and functional movement characteristics of the cohort and those with and without sarcopenia

From: Understanding factors associated with sarcopenic obesity in older African women from a low-income setting: a cross-sectional analysis

Variables Cohort (n = 122) No sarcopenia (n = 88) Sarcopenia (n = 34) P value
Age (Years) 67 (64–71) 67 (64–71) 68 (64–71) 0.943
Height (cm) 155.8 ± 6.1 157.0 ± 6.1 152.9 ± 4.9 0.001
Weight (kg) 81.6 (69.0–98.9) 77.1 (66.6–91.8) 92.4 (81.7–108.9) 0.002
BMI (kg/m2) 33.1 (29.0–40.1) 31.9 (28.3–35.6) 39.3 (34.3–45.4) < 0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio (cm) 0.95 (0.87–0.10) 0.95 (0.88–0.99) 0.96 (0.84–1.0) 0.945
Body fat-mass (kg) 36.6 (28.2–47.6) 32.7 (26.0–41.9) 47.4 (37.7–55.9) < 0.001
Body fat-mass (%) 48.6 ± 5.9 47.0 (43.8–50.6) 55.0 (51.0–57.0) < 0.001
FFSTM (kg) 36.7 (32.6–41.3) 35.7 (32.8–41.1) 37.5 (32.3–42.9) 0.733
Android (%) 8.6 ± 1.4 8.6 ± 1.5 8.7 ± 1.5 0.880
Gynoid (%) 16.0 ± 2.5 16.1 ± 2.5 15.6 ± 2.2 0.260
VAT (cm2) 196.3 ± 74.5 183.4 ± 75.0 229.0 ± 65.0 0.002
SAT (cm2) 477.9 ± 138.2 441.2 ± 132.9 569.7 ± 105.6 < 0.001
VAT/SAT ratio 0.40 (0.32–0.48) 0.42 ± 0.13 0.40 ± 0.10 0.628
ASM (kg) 16.5 (14.7–19.6) 16.5 (14.6–19.5) 17.4 (15.0–20.2) 0.455
ASMI (kg/m2) 6.9 (6.1–7.9) 6.8 (6.0–7.5) 7.4 (6.2–8.8) 0.036
ASMBMI (kg/m2) 0.514 (0.459–0.578) 0.54 (0.50–0.67) 0.45 (0.42–0.48) < 0.001
Peripheral fat (kg) 18.2 (14.0–23.9) 16.3 (13.4–20.4) 24.7 (19.5–28.2) < 0.001
Peripheral fat/ASM ratio 1.1 ± 0.3 1.01 ± 0.20 1.36 ± 0.20 < 0.001
Functional Movement
 Grip strength (kg) 19.6 ± 4.5 20.4 ± 4.3 17.6 ± 4.3 0.002
 Grip strengthBMI (kg/m2) 0.59 ± 0.18 0.63 (0.55–0.76) 0.48 (0.39–0.53) < 0.001
 6-min walk (m) 450 (395–490) 462.5 (402.5–496.3) 405.0 (351.4–462.3) 0.010
 Gait speed (m/sec) 1.53 (1.38–1.67) 1.55 (1.41–1.68) 1.46 (1.31–1.56) 0.022
 3 m timed-up and go (sec) 6.9 (6.2–8.1) 6.7 (6.1–7.8) 7.2 (6.5–8.4) 0.057
  1. All normally distributed and skewed data are reported as mean ± SD and Median (IQR – 25-75th percentile). Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, FFSTM Fat-free soft tissue mass, VAT visceral adipose tissue, SAT subcutaneous adipose tissue, ASM appendicular skeletal muscle mass, ASMI appendicular skeletal muscle mass index, ASMBMI appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjust for body mass index, Grip strengthBMI Grip strength adjusted for body mass index
  2. P values represent a significant difference between those with and without sarcopenia. Parametric and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney U) independent t-tests were conducted on normally distributed and skewed data, respectively