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Table 2 The baseline attributes of the participants with no fall, occasional and recurrent falls

From: Incidence and multidimensional predictors of occasional and recurrent falls among Malaysian community‐dwelling older persons

Parameters Non-fallers (n = 1454) [Prevalence (%) or mean ± SD] Occasional fallers (n = 224) [Prevalence (%) or mean ± SD] P-value Recurrent fallers (n = 85) [Prevalence (%) or mean ± SD] P-value
Age (years) 68.62 ± 5.94 68.80 ± 6.13 0.668 68.65 ±6.07 0.967
Sex
 Male 751 (51.65) 89 (39.73) 0.001* 27 (31.76) <0.001*
 Female 703 (48.35) 135 (60.27)   58 (68.24)  
Ethnicity
 Malay 879 (60.45) 146 (65.18) 0.119 58 (68.24) 0.218
 Chinese 509 (35.01) 64 (28.57)   22 (25.88)  
 Indian 66 (4.54) 14 (6.25)   5 (5.88)  
Single 18 (1.24) 7 (3.13) 0.030* 1 (1.18) 0.960
Living alone 138 (9.49) 22 (9.82) 0.875 15 (17.65) 0.015*
Smoking 251 (17.26) 34 (15.18) 0.439 10 (11.76) 0.189
Alcohol consumption 66 (4.54) 7 (3.13) 0.334 2 (2.35) 0.340
Education (years) 5.38 ± 4.03 4.88 ± 3.79 0.083 4.54 ± 4.04 0.063
Falls history 222 (15.27) 68 (30.36) <0.001* 36 (42.35) <0.001*
Chronic diseases
 Hypertension 714 (49.11) 116 (51.79) 0.455 46 (54.12) 0.369
 Diabetes mellitus 363 (24.97) 57 (25.45) 0.877 24 (28.24) 0.499
 Stroke 22 (1.51) 3 (1.34) 0.842 4 (4.71) 0.026*
 Joint Pain 337 (23.18) 64 (28.57) 0.078 31 (36.47) 0.005*
 Cardiovascular diseases 147 (10.11) 21 (9.38) 0.733 7 (8.24) 0.576
 Cataract & glaucoma 127 (8.73) 27 (12.05) 0.109 7 (8.24) 0.874
 Asthma 111 (7.63) 18 (8.04) 0.834 10 (11.76) 0.169
 Gout 68 (4.68) 7 (3.13) 0.295 5 (5.88) 0.611
 Gastric ulcer 178 (12.24) 34 (15.18) 0.218 15 (17.65) 0.144
 Urinary Incontinence 143 (9.83) 26 (11.61) 0.412 11 (12.94) 0.354
 Hearing & vision problems 173 (11.90) 23 (10.27) 0.479 15 (17.65) 0.116
Psychosocial
 Depression 2.54 ± 2.19 2.95 ± 2.42 0.012* 3.35 ± 2.63 0.007*
Physical
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.95 ± 4.41 25.11 ± 4.83 0.606 25.68 ± 5.07 0.140
 Circumference: waist (cm) 88.21 ± 11.20 88.08 ± 11.97 0.870 89.88 ± 12.62 0.239
 Circumference: hip (cm) 96.54 ± 9.18 96.95 ± 10.37 0.575 98.46 ± 11.61 0.139
 Circumference: calf (cm) 33.55 ± 3.75 33.12 ± 3.85 0.114 33.41 ± 4.08 0.744
 Fat mass (kg) 24.19 ± 9.09 24.47 ± 9.67 0.680 26.32 ± 10.16 0.038*
 Fat free mass (kg) 37.16 ± 7.89 35.64 ± 7.07 0.004* 35.17 ± 7.90 0.025*
 Skeletal muscle mass (kg) 19.75 ± 4.71 18.82 ± 4.21 0.003* 18.51 ± 4.70 0.019*
 Percentage of body fat (%) 38.68 ± 10.38 39.69 ± 10.20 0.178 41.89 ± 10.26 0.006*
 Systolic (mmHg) 140.70 ± 22.40 141.13 ± 20.34 0.795 138.81 ±  23.46 0.471
 Diastolic (mmHg) 77.26 ± 13.44 76.87 ± 12.96 0.689 77.31 ± 12.88 0.975
Nutrition
 Energy (kcal/day) 1,658.03 ± 485.42 1,583.99 ± 436.79 0.037* 1,625.96 ± 509.31 0.560
 Protein (g/day) 70.85 ± 22.10 68.75 ± 23.29 0.201 69.36 ± 22.77 0.550
 Carbohydrate (g/day) 224.76 ± 77.79 209.95 ± 67.82 0.004* 218.05 ± 81.67 0.447
 Sugar (g/day) 21.51 ± 15.12 20.42 ±14.94 0.331 18.51 ± 12.94 0.077
 Fat (g/day) 52.87 ± 20.69 51.79 ± 20.36 0.477 53.13 ± 20.72 0.912
 Cholesterol (mg/day) 158.51 ± 113.21 162.88 ± 122.33 0.606 172.06 ± 130.20 0.294
 Saturated fat (mg/day) 8.39 ± 5.73 8.20 ± 6.14 0.681 9.05±6.10 0.307
 MUFA (g/day) 8.32 ± 5.02 8.44 ± 5.65 0.750 8.71 ± 5.73 0.498
 PUFA (g/day) 5.44 ± 3.43 5.49 ± 3.67 0.834 5.40 ± 3.22 0.916
 Vitamin D (mg/day) 0.35 ± 2.50 0.27 ± 0.97 0.682 0.34 ± 1.05 0.990
 Vitamin E (mg/day) 12.04 ± 62.58 14.77 ± 71.91 0.563 4.33 ± 2.40 0.262
 α-tocopherol (mg/day) 0.45 ± 1.17 0.51 ± 1.45 0.506 0.54 ± 1.22 0.495
 Sodium (mg/day) 1,466.23 ± 979.55 1,401.85 ± 1068.97 0.545 1,466.36 ± 799.12 0.854
 Potassium (mg/day) 1,510.35 ± 552.18 1,443.59 ± 522.91 0.099 1,402.60 ± 534.01 0.083
 Calcium (mg/day) 520.70 ± 248.06 501.46 ± 242.21 0.292 473.34 ± 212.43 0.089
 Iron (mg/day) 13.51 ± 5.41 12.96 ± 4.84 0.160 13.26 ± 6.10 0.681
 Phosphorus (mg/day) 1,094.54 ± 418.46 1,081.38 ± 425.24 0.671 1,067.02 ± 389.09 0.559
 Magnesium (mg/day) 131.86 ± 64.94 128.51 ± 68.80 0.489 123.00 ± 63.66 0.227
 Zinc (mg/day) 3.63 ± 1.99 3.38 ± 1.60 0.047* 3.40 ± 1.65 0.310
 Selenium (μg/day) 23.98 ± 18.23 22.47 ± 17.17 0.260 23.88 ± 16.95 0.961
Biochemical
 Hemoglobin (g/L) 14.20 ± 2.30 13.64 ± 1.85 <0.001* 13.42 ± 2.13 0.008*
 Glucose (mmol/L) 6.19 ± 2.28 5.95 ± 1.69 0.096 6.18 ± 2.00 0.987
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.41 ± 1.12 5.47 ± 1.09 0.532 5.54 ± 1.05 0.359
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.40 ± 0.34 1.41 ± 0.39 0.726 1.47 ± 0.46 0.121
 LDL (mmol/L) 3.34 ± 1.03 3.36 ± 0.95 0.806 3.42 ± 0.98 0.523
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.50 ± 0.76 1.55 ± 0.76 0.513 1.45 ± 0.63 0.598
 Albumin (g/L) 42.93 ± 2.77 42.86 ± 2.75 0.736 42.42 ± 2.90 0.158
Cognitive Test
 Digit Span 7.62 ± 2.42 7.46 ± 2.37 0.346 7.43 ± 2.40 0.479
 MMSE 23.32 ± 4.64 22.62 ± 4.82 0.037* 22.77 ± 5.16 0.299
 MoCA 19.23 ± 5.57 18.35 ± 5.82 0.031* 18.56 ± 5.88 0.294
 Digit Symbol 5.14 ± 2.59 4.73 ± 2.50 0.038* 4.55 ± 2.29 0.059
Physical performance
 2-minute step test (number) 62.44 ± 25.45 60.70 ± 24.96 0.350 56.31 ± 32.72 0.104
 Chair stand test (number) 10.05 ± 2.98 9.60 ± 3.28 0.039* 8.83 ± 3.07 <0.001*
 Timed Up and Go test (seconds) 11.33 ± 3.56 11.62 ± 3.49 0.258 12.84 ± 5.28 0.013*
 Dominant handgrip muscle strength test (kg) 22.59 ± 7.66 20.82 ± 7.27 0.002* 19.57 ± 6.69 0.001*
  1. Note: BMI Body mass index, HDL High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, MMSE Mini-mental state examination, MoCA Montreal cognitive assessment, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids. *Significant differences as compared to non-fallers (p<0.05)