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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of AIS patients in training cohort and validation cohort

From: Individualized predictions of early isolated distal deep vein thrombosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study

Variables Total sample (n = 647) Training cohort (n = 431) Validation cohort
(n = 216)
P-value
IDDVT, n (%) 142 (21.9%) 96 (22.3%) 46 (21.3%) 0.777
Demographic characteristics
Age (years) 68.5 ± 12.1 68.9 ± 12.0 67.7 ± 12.4 0.224
Gender     0.839
male, n (%) 381 (58.9%) 255 (59.2%) 126 (58.3%)  
female, n (%) 266 (41.1%) 176 (40.8%) 90 (41.7%)  
Subtype of stroke, n (%)     0.216
Large-artery atherosclerosis 516 (79.8%) 340 (78.9%) 176 (81.5%)  
Cardioembolism 80 (12.4%) 54 (12.5%) 26 (12.0%)  
Small-artery occlusion 6 (0.9%) 2 (0.5%) 4 (1.9%)  
Other or undetermined 25 (3.9%) 20 (4.6%) 5 (2.3%)  
Unknown 20 (3.1%) 15 (3.5%) 5 (2.3%)  
Clinical parameters, n (%)
Lower limb paralysis 248 (38.3%) 169 (39.2%) 79 (36.6%) 0.515
Current pneumonia 132 (20.4%) 84 (19.5%) 48 (22.2%) 0.416
Atrial fibrillation 114 (17.6%) 81 (18.8%) 33 (15.3%) 0.268
Arterial hypertension 504 (77.9%) 327 (75.9%) 177 (81.9%) 0.079
Diabetes mellitus 236 (36.5%) 151 (35.0%) 85 (39.4%) 0.282
Current malignant tumor 34 (5.3%) 21 (4.9%) 13 (6.0%) 0.538
Current uarthritis 27 (4.2%) 17 (3.9%) 10 (4.6%) 0.681
Laboratory parameters
Albumin (g/L) 36.9 ± 4.1 36.9 ± 4.1 37.0 ± 4.0 0.812
Fast blood glucose (mmol/L) 6.0 ± 2.4 5.9 ± 2.3 6.2 ± 2.7 0.255
SCr (μmol/L) 67.0 (55.0–82.0) 67.0 (55.0–82.0) 68.5 (56.0–80.0) 0.814
Hcy (μmol/L) 6.5 ± 8.4 6.1 ± 3.8 7.4 ± 14.0 0.162
INR 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 0.247
Fibrinogen (g/L) 3.6 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 1.5 3.7 ± 1.4 0.215
D-Dimer (mg/L) 1.3 (0.9–2.6) 1.3 (0.9–2.6) 1.4 (1.0–2.4) 0.675
CRP (mg/L) 8.6 (3.3–23.1) 10.4 (3.4–23.1) 6.0 (3.2–21.4) 0.363
hs-CRP (mg/L) 4.8 (1.1–13.8) 4.2 (1.2–12.8) 5.8 (1.1–21.1) 0.553
Initial treatment in hospital, n (%)
Anticoagulants 200 (30.9%) 138 (32.0%) 62 (28.7%) 0.390
Antiplatelet 546 (84.4%) 358 (83.1%) 188 (87.0%) 0.189
Lipid-lowering agents 627 (96.9%) 417 (96.8%) 210 (97.2%) 0.744
Thrombolysis 76 (11.7%) 56 (13.0%) 20 (9.3%) 0.164
Hormonal treatment 32 (4.9%) 20 (4.6%) 12 (5.6%) 0.613
  1. NOTE. CRP c-reactive protein; Hcy homocysteine; hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IDDVT isolated distal deep venous thrombosis; SCr serum creatinine concentration