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Table 3 Factors associated with decreased physical activity and conversation time, and enhanced handwashing

From: Behavioral changes and hygiene practices of older adults in Japan during the first wave of COVID-19 emergency

  Decreased physical activity Decreased conversation time Washing hands more
Crude Adjustedd Crude Adjustedd Crude Adjustedd
Characteristics OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
Age 0.97 (0.84–1.12) 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 0.86 (0.75–1.00) e 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 1.02 (0.88–1.19)
Sex (female) 1.23 (0.83–1.83) 1.18 (0.69–2.02) 1.09 (0.74–1.59) 1.07 (0.64–1.80) 1.72 (1.20–2.47)e 1.90 (1.17–3.08)e
High education 0.77 (0.52–1.15) 0.69 (0.43–1.10) 1.01 (0.69–1.48) 0.97 (0.62–1.51) 1.26 (0.88–1.80) 1.44 (0.95–2.18)
Living alone 1.03 (0.66–1.61) 0.96 (0.56–1.65) 0.92 (0.60–1.42) 0.86 (0.51–1.44) 1.40 (0.93–2.10) 1.24 (0.76–2.03)
Widowed 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 1.09 (0.65–1.85) 1.10 (0.75–1.61) 1.25 (0.75–2.07) 1.30 (0.91–1.87) 1.08 (0.67–1.73)
Current alcohol use 1.15 (0.77–1.72) 1.35 (0.86–2.13) 0.95 (0.65–1.41) 1.02 (0.65–1.59) 0.93 (0.65–1.34) 0.97 (0.64–1.48)
Current smoker 0.59 (0.19–1.78) 0.67 (0.17–2.57) 0.78 (0.30–2.06) 0.69 (0.20–2.36) 0.46 (0.18–1.17) 0.76 (0.26–2.18)
Overweight 0.99 (0.63–1.55) 1.19 (0.73–1.94) 0.89 (0.58–1.37) 1.12 (0.70–1.82) 1.26 (0.84–1.89) 1.19 (0.76–1.86)
Self-rated healtha 0.97 (0.65–1.45) 0.91 (0.58–1.44) 0.71 (0.48–1.05) 0.73 (0.47–1.13) 1.30 (0.90–1.87) 1.09 (0.73–1.64)
MMSE (≤23) 0.58 (0.31–1.05) 0.56 (0.29–1.08) 0.57 (0.32–1.01) 0.53 (0.28–1.01) 0.98 (0.60–1.61) 1.02 (0.59–1.77)
GDS (≥5) 0.78 (0.49–1.26) 0.79 (0.46–1.36) 1.16 (0.75–1.80) 1.12 (0.68–1.85) 0.71 (0.47–1.07) 0.93 (0.58–1.48)
IADL (≤4) 1.36 (0.77–2.39) 1.64 (0.85–3.19) 1.09 (0.61–1.92) 1.14 (0.59–2.23) 0.89 (0.52–1.52) 0.79 (0.43–1.46)
Chronic conditions ≥5 0.91 (0.61–1.35) 0.84 (0.54–1.30) 0.93 (0.63–1.37) 0.95 (0.62–1.45) 1.13 (0.79–1.62) 1.05 (0.71–1.57)
Hearing impairment 1.28 (0.62–2.63) 0.97 (0.42–2.26) 0.98 (0.48–2.01) 0.87 (0.38–1.98) 1.09 (0.55–2.16) 1.08 (0.50–2.30)
Visual impairment 1.74 (1.12–2.71)e 1.79 (1.10–2.91)e 1.28 (0.83–1.98) 1.18 (0.73–1.91) 1.05 (0.69–1.60) 1.28 (0.81–2.02)
Engagement in physical activityb 1.77 (1.17–2.67)e 1.95 (1.23–3.08)e 1.86 (1.25–2.76)e 2.24 (1.43–3.50)e 1.09 (0.75–1.60) 1.04 (0.68–1.58)
Frequent community interactionc 0.69 (0.37–1.29) 0.69 (0.34–1.40) 0.30 (0.15–0.63)e 0.23 (0.10–0.55)e 1.65 (0.96–2.84) 1.91 (1.03–3.55)e
Smartphone ownership 2.02 (1.32–3.10)e 2.15 (1.33–3.47)e 0.96 (0.62–1.48) 0.87 (0.54–1.41) 1.58 (1.05–2.37)e 1.81 (1.15–2.85)e
  1. Abbreviations: OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living
  2. a Those who reported very good/good versus others (reference)
  3. b Those who reported upper tertile of physical Activity Index versus others (reference)
  4. c Those who reported every day versus others (reference)
  5. d Mutually adjusted for all variables in the model
  6. e P < 0.05