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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression models on associations between socio-demographic characteristics and emotional and social loneliness among 2251 participants of the UHCE study

From: Socio-demographic characteristics associated with emotional and social loneliness among older adults

  Emotional loneliness (‘yes’ n = 657; 29.2%) Social loneliness (‘yes’ n = 600; 26.7%)
Multivariable model OR (95% CI) Multivariable model OR (95% CI)
Age (per 5 years) 1.16 (1.06–1.28) 1.11 (1.00–1.22)
Sex (female) 1.38 (1.10–1.72) 0.86 (0.69–1.09)
Living situation (without partner) 2.16 (1.73–2.70) 1.23 (0.98–1.55)
Educational level
 Tertiary ref. ref.
 Secondary 1.22 (0.83–1.79) 1.31 (0.88–1.95)
 Primary or lower 1.82 (1.21–2.73) 1.77 (1.14–2.74)
Migration background (yes) 0.99 (0.69–1.41) 1.03 (0.72–1.48)
Country
 The UK ref. ref.
 Greece 4.33 (2.96–6.34) 1.88 (1.24–2.85)
 Croatia 3.11 (2.32–4.16) 8.34 (6.14–11.33)
 The Netherlands 1.50 (1.07–2.09) 1.66 (1.16–2.37)
 Spain 1.26 (0.86–1.84) 1.34 (0.89–2.00)
  1. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are derived from multivariable logistic regression analyses for emotional and social loneliness (cut-off value Loneliness sub scales ≥2). P-values <.05 in bold. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ref. reference group