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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of 2251 participants of the UHCE study; by emotional and social loneliness

From: Socio-demographic characteristics associated with emotional and social loneliness among older adults

Socio-demographiccharacteristics Total Emotional loneliness (yes) Emotional loneliness (no)   Social loneliness (yes) Social loneliness (no)  
n = 2251 (100%) n = 657 (29.2%) n = 1594 (70.8%) P-value n = 600 (26.7%) n = 1651 (73.3%) P-value
Mean (SD) N (% of total) Mean (SD) N (% ‘lonely’) Mean (SD) N (% ‘not lonely’)   Mean (SD) N (% ‘lonely’) Mean (SD) N (% ‘not lonely’)  
Age (in years) 79.7 (SD = 5.6) 80.2 (SD = 5.8) 79.5 (SD = 5.6) .006 80.5 (SD = 5.3) 79.4 (SD = 5.8) <.001
Sex     <.001    .223
 Female 1360 (60.4%) 463 (34.0%) 897 (66.0%)   375 (27.6%) 985 (72.4%)  
 Male 891 (39.6%) 194 (21.8%) 697 (78.2%)   225 (25.3%) 666 (74.7%)  
Living situation     <.001    .002
 With partner 1135 (50.4%) 238 (21.0%) 897 (79.0%)   270 (23.8%) 865 (76.2%)  
 Without partner 1116 (49.6%) 419 (37.5%) 697 (62.5%)   330 (29.6%) 786 (70.4%)  
Educational level     <.001    .006
 Tertiary 206 (9.2%) 43 (20.9%) 163 (79.1%)   41 (19.9%) 165 (80.1%)  
 Secondary 1426 (63.3%) 397 (27.8%) 1029 (72.2%)   410 (28.8%) 1016 (71.2%)  
 Primary or less 619 (27.5%) 217 (35.1%) 402 (64.9%)   149 (24.1%) 470 (75.9%)  
Migration background     .499    .002
 No 2066 (91.8%) 599 (29.0%) 1467 (71.0%)   533 (25.8%) 1533 (74.2%)  
 Yes 185 (8.2%) 58 (31.4%) 127 (68.6%)   67 (36.2%) 118 (63.8%)  
Country     <.001    <.001
 The UK 548 (24.3%) 101 (18.4%) 447 (81.6%)   75 (13.7%) 473 (86.3%)  
 Greece 345 (15.3%) 146 (42.3%) 199 (57.7%)   77 (22.3%) 268 (77.7%)  
 Croatia 495 (22.0%) 202 (40.8%) 293 (59.2%)   278 (56.2%) 217 (43.8%)  
 The Netherlands 369 (16.4%) 95 (25.7%) 274 (74.3%)   79 (21.4%) 290 (78.6%)  
 Spain 494 (21.9%) 113 (22.9%) 381 (77.1%)   91 (18.4%) 403 (81.6%)  
  1. P-values <.05 in bold. P-values for continuous variables were calculated with ANOVA and P-values for categorical variables were calculated with Chi-squared tests. SD standard deviation