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Table 3 Logistic regression estimates for cognitive impairment by background characteristics among older adults in India

From: Relationship between chewing tobacco, smoking, consuming alcohol and cognitive impairment among older adults in India: a cross‐sectional study

Variables Model-1 Model-2 Model-3 Model-4 Model-5
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Smoking tobacco
 No Ref. Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 1.15*(1.01,1.31) 1.24*(1.02,1.49)   1.22*(1.01,1.47)  
Chewing tobacco
 No Ref. Ref. Ref.   
 Yes 1.62*(1.46,1.8) 0.93(0.80,1.08) 0.92(0.81,1.08)   
Alcohol consumption
 No Ref. Ref.    Ref.
 Yes 0.89(0.75,1.06) 1.30*(1.02,1.65)    1.28*(1.01–1.63)
Age (years)
 60–69   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 70–79   1.47*(1.28,1.69) 1.47*(1.29,1.69) 1.47*(1.29,1.69) 1.47*(1.29,1.69)
 80+   1.97*(1.57,2.47) 1.95*(1.55,2.45) 1.95*(1.55,2.45) 1.95*(1.55,2.45)
Sex
 Men   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Women   1.26*(1.08,1.46) 1.26*(1.08,1.46) 1.25*(1.08,1.45) 1.25*(1.08,1.45)
Education
 No education   3.42*(2.59,4.5) 3.41*(2.59,4.5) 3.42*(2.59,4.5) 3.42*(2.59,4.5)
 Below 5 years   2.60*(1.98,3.4) 2.59*(1.97,3.39) 2.59*(1.98,3.39) 2.59*(1.98,3.39)
 6–10 years   1.38*(1.08,1.77) 1.39*(1.08,1.78) 1.39*(1.08,1.78) 1.39*(1.08,1.78)
 11 + years   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Working status
 Yes   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 No   1.23*(1.06,1.42) 1.24*(1.07,1.43) 1.23*(1.06,1.43) 1.23*(1.06,1.43)
 Retired   0.89(0.71,1.13) 0.90(0.71,1.14) 0.90(0.71,1.14) 0.90(0.71,1.14)
Marital Status
 Currently in Union   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Not in Union   1.14*(1,1.31) 1.14(0.99,1.3) 1.14(0.99,1.3) 1.14(0.99,1.3)
Community involvement
 Yes   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 No   1.13(0.98,1.31) 1.14(0.99,1.32) 1.14(0.99,1.32) 1.14(0.99,1.32)
Trust over someone
 Yes   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 No   1.22*(1.04,1.44) 1.22*(1.03,1.43) 1.22*(1.03,1.43) 1.22*(1.03,1.43)
Living arrangement
 Others   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Living alone/with spouse   0.94(0.81,1.09) 0.93(0.81,1.08) 0.93(0.81,1.08) 0.93(0.81,1.08)
Self-rated health
 Good   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Poor   1.50*(1.34,1.69) 1.49*(1.32,1.67) 1.49*(1.32,1.67) 1.49*(1.32,1.67)
Chronic morbidity
 No   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes   1.36*(1.20,1.54) 1.36*(1.20,1.54) 1.36*(1.20,1.54) 1.36*(1.20,1.54)
ADL
 High   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Low   1.97*(1.49,2.59) 1.95*(1.48,2.56) 1.95*(1.48,2.56) 1.95*(1.48,2.56)
IADL
 High   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Low   1.27*(1.12,1.44) 1.26*(1.11,1.43) 1.26*(1.11,1.43) 1.26*(1.11,1.43)
Caste
 Non-SC/ST   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 SC/ST   1.08(0.94,1.21) 1.11(0.95,1.27) 1.11(0.95,1.27) 1.11(0.95,1.27)
Religion
 Hindu   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Muslim   0.87(0.68,1.11) 0.87(0.68,1.1) 0.87(0.68,1.11) 0.87(0.68,1.11)
 Others   1.14(0.94,1.38) 1.13(0.93,1.36) 1.13(0.93,1.36) 1.13(0.93,1.36)
Wealth index
 Rich   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Middle   1.38*(1.18,1.61) 1.38*(1.18,1.61) 1.38*(1.18,1.61) 1.38*(1.18,1.61)
 Poor   1.6*(1.36,1.9) 1.58*(1.34,1.86) 1.58*(1.34,1.86) 1.58*(1.34,1.86)
Place of residence
 Urban   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Rural   1.02(0.9,1.14) 1.02(0.9,1.15) 1.02(0.9,1.15) 1.02(0.9,1.15)
States
 Himachal Pradesh   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Punjab   0.98(0.75,1.29) 0.98(0.75,1.29) 0.98(0.75,1.29) 0.98(0.75,1.29)
 West Bengal   4.21*(3.23,5.49) 4.28*(3.28,5.59) 4.28*(3.28,5.58) 4.28*(3.28,5.58)
 Orissa   1.61*(1.26,2.06) 1.63*(1.27,2.08) 1.63*(1.28,2.08) 1.63*(1.28,2.08)
 Maharashtra   1.17(0.94,1.47) 1.11(0.89,1.39) 1.10(0.88,1.38) 1.10(0.88,1.38)
 Kerala   2.29*(1.81,2.9) 2.35*(1.85,2.97) 2.34*(1.85,2.96) 2.34*(1.85,2.96)
 Tamil Nadu   0.58*(0.46,0.73) 0.60*(0.48,0.75) 0.60*(0.48,0.75) 0.60*(0.48,0.75)
Smoking tobacco # Alcohol consumption
 No # No    Ref.   
 No # Yes    1.39(0.93,2.07)   
 Yes # No    1.24*(1.01,1.52)   
 Yes # Yes    1.56*(1.21,2)   
Chewing tobacco # Alcohol consumption
 No # No     Ref.  
 No # Yes     1.28(0.96,1.7)  
 Yes # No     0.92(0.78,1.08)  
 Yes # Yes     1.26(0.9,1.78)  
Smoking tobacco # chewing tobacco
 No # No      Ref.
 No # Yes      0.90(0.77–1.08)
 Yes # No      1.17(0.95–1.43)
 Yes # Yes      1.15(0.82–1.60)
  1. ADL Activities of Daily Living; IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; SC/ST Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe; *if p<0.05; Ref Reference; #: Interaction; OR Odds Ratio; CI Confidence Interval