Skip to main content

Table 2 Percentage distribution of cognitive impairment by background characteristics among older adults in India

From: Relationship between chewing tobacco, smoking, consuming alcohol and cognitive impairment among older adults in India: a cross‐sectional study

Variables Rural Urban
% p  < 0.05 % p  < 0.05
Smoking tobacco     *
 No 62.9   51.2  
 Yes 62.4   58.4  
Chewing tobacco   *   *
 No 61.2   50.1  
 Yes 68.2   62.3  
Alcohol consumption     *
 No 63.2   51.5  
 Yes 58.7   59.6  
Age (years)   *   *
 60–69 56.4   44.8  
 70–79 69.7   63.2  
 80+ 79.1   76.5  
Sex   *   *
 Men 55.9   44.7  
 Women 69.2   58.3  
Education   *   *
 No education 70.7   69.8  
 Below 5 years 64.0   61.4  
 6–10 years 42.7   37.9  
 11 + years 30.7   31.8  
Working status   *   *
 Yes 54.0   49.1  
 No 68.7   58.2  
 Retired 35.5   29.1  
Marital Status   *   *
 Currently in Union 57.0   45.1  
 Not in Union 72.3   61.1  
Community involvement   *   *
 Yes 60.8   48.4  
 No 70.0   68.8  
Trust over someone   *   *
 Yes 61.2   50.6  
 No 70.1   61.7  
Living arrangement   *   *
 Others 63.9   55.3  
 Living alone/with spouse 59.2   38.6  
Self-rated health   *   *
 Good 52.7   39.6  
 Poor 70.5   63.7  
Chronic morbidity   *   *
 No 56.3   39.7  
 Yes 66.3   59.4  
ADL   *   *
 High 61.0   49.9  
 Low 85.2   82.6  
IADL   *   *
 High 51.7   45.4  
 Low 70.4   59.0  
Caste   *   *
 Non-SC/ST 60.5   49.6  
 SC/ST 68.4   63.1  
Religion   *   *
 Hindu 62.8   50.8  
 Muslim 69.6   60.5  
 Others 59.9   53.8  
Wealth index   *   *
 Rich 50.7   46.2  
 Middle 62.7   53.6  
 Poor 68.8   64.3  
States   *   *
 Himachal Pradesh 55.2   34.7  
 Punjab 58.9   45.5  
 West Bengal 83.6   78.5  
 Orissa 70.0   63.5  
 Maharashtra 56.7   52.4  
 Kerala 69.1   61.0  
T amil Nadu 49.2   32.3  
Total 62.8   52.0  
  1. ADL Activities of Daily Living; IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; SC/ST Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe; *if p < 0.05; %: percentage