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Table 1 Socio-economic profile of older adults in India

From: Relationship between chewing tobacco, smoking, consuming alcohol and cognitive impairment among older adults in India: a cross‐sectional study

Variables Rural Urban
Sample Percentage Sample Percentage
Smoking tobacco
 No 4128 83.5 3980 88.3
 Yes 816 16.5 529 11.7
Chewing tobacco
 No 3772 76.3 3788 84.0
 Yes 1172 23.7 721 16.0
Alcohol consumption
 No 4552 92.1 4207 93.3
 Yes 392 7.9 302 6.7
Age (years)
 60–69 2954 59.7 3035 67.3
 70–79 1429 28.9 1053 23.4
 80+ 562 11.4 421 9.3
Sex
 Men 2366 47.9 2077 46.1
 Women 2578 52.1 2432 53.9
Education
 No education 2858 57.8 1443 32.0
 Below 5 years 1026 20.8 892 19.8
 6–10 years 859 17.4 1643 36.4
 11 + years 201 4.1 531 11.8
Working status
 Yes 1299 26.3 835 18.5
 No 3342 67.6 2983 66.2
 Retired 303 6.1 691 15.3
Marital Status
 Currently in Union 3060 61.9 2561 56.8
 Not in Union 1884 38.1 1948 43.2
Community involvement
 Yes 3857 78.0 3710 82.3
 No 1087 22.0 799 17.7
Trust over someone
 Yes 4023 81.4 3922 87.0
 No 921 18.6 587 13.0
Living arrangement
 Others 3799 76.9 3631 80.5
 Living alone/with spouse 1145 23.2 878 19.5
Self-rated health
 Good 2138 43.3 2188 48.5
 Poor 2806 56.8 2321 51.5
Chronic morbidity
 No 1700 32.4 1691 37.5
 Yes 3244 65.6 2819 62.5
ADL
 High 4565 92.3 4209 93.4
 Low 379 7.7 300 6.6
IADL
 High 2002 40.5 2318 51.4
 Low 2942 59.5 2191 48.6
Caste
 Non-SC/ST 3493 70.7 3700 82.1
 SC/ST 1451 29.3 809 18.0
Religion
 Hindu 3954 80.0 3535 78.4
 Muslim 307 6.2 415 9.2
 Others 683 13.8 560 12.4
Wealth index
 Rich 1300 26.3 2401 53.3
 Middle 962 19.5 1086 24.1
 Poor 2681 54.2 1020 22.6
States
 Himachal Pradesh 978 19.8 133 3.0
 Punjab 672 13.6 657 14.6
 West Bengal 528 10.7 692 15.4
 Orissa 908 18.4 308 6.8
 Maharashtra 658 13.3 799 17.7
 Kerala 651 13.2 779 17.3
 Tamil Nadu 548 11.1 1140 25.3
Total 4944 100.0 4509 100.0
  1. ADL Activities of Daily Living; IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; SC/ST Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe