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Table 3 Effectiveness of intervention programmes on mental health of ICs of persons living with dementia

From: Psychosocial interventions to support the mental health of informal caregivers of persons living with dementia – a systematic literature review

Study Outcome categories
Depression Burden QoL Well-being Anxiety Stress Grief Mood
Psychoeducation (n = 20)
 Berwig et al. [42]   +      
 Blom et al.a [43] + n. r.    +    
 Chen et al. [44]   +       
 Czaja et al. [45]        
 Gitlin et al. [46]       
 Gitlin et al. [47] +   +     
 Judge et al. [48] +    +    
 Kunik et al. [49]       
 Kuo et al.b [50, 51] +   +      
 Kurz et al. [52]       
 Livingston et al.b [53, 54]    +   +    
 Martin-Carrasco et al. [55]   + +     
 Martin-Carrasco et al. [56]      
 Prick et al. [57]       
 Rotrou et al. [58] +       
 Soylemez et al. [59]      
 Steffen et al. [60]       
 Tang et al. [61]       
 Tremont et al. [62] +      
 Wang et al. [30]   + +      
Leisure and physical activity (n = 9)
 Charlesworth et al. (RYCT)c [63]      
 Connell et al. [64]       
 Danucalov et al. [65]    +      
 Gitlin et al. [66]       
 Hirano et al. [67]   +       
 Lowery et al. [68]   +     
 Mahdavi et al. [69]   +       
 Moore et al. [70]       
 Woods et al. [71]     
Counselling (n = 8)
 Brijoux et al. [72]   +      
 Fortinsky et al. [73]       
 Gaugler et al. [74]        
 Gavrilova et al. [75]   +     
 Geschke et al. [76] +       
 Guerra et al.d [77]   +     
 Joling et al. [78]     
 Phung et al. [79]       
Cognitive behavioural approaches (n = 7)
 Au et al. [80] +        
 Cheng et al.a [81, 82] + +    +   
 Kamkhagi et al. [83] +      
 Kwok et al. [84]   +       
 Losada et al. (CBT) [85] +       
 Losada et al. (ACT) [85]       
 Meichsner et al.a [86, 87]   +    +  
Befriending & Peer-support (n = 2)
 Charlesworth et al. (CSP)e [63]      
 Laakkonen et al. [88]        
  1. +: Results statistically significant. –: Results statistically not significant
  2. a: Burden listed as outcome, but no results on burden reported (n.r.)
  3. b: More than one publication but same intervention
  4. c: Two different interventions are tested in Charlesworth et al. [63]. One of the interventions is “Remembering Yesterday Caring Today” (RYCT). This part of the study is classified here as “Leisure and physical activity”
  5. d: Two different instruments used for the outcome stress, both without statistically significant results
  6. e: The “Carer Supporter Programme (CSP)” is the second intervention tested in Charlesworth et al. [63]. This peer-to-peer approach is classified here as “Befriending and Peer-support”