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Table 2 Comparison of Depressive Symptoms, Present Health Statusa

From: Association of living arrangements with happiness attributes among older adults

Characteristics Categories Living alone
(n = 3059)
Living with their spouse
(n = 6644)
Living with their family
(n = 4984)
F p
n % n % n %   
Happiness (M ± SD) 6.22 ± 2.11 6.76 ± 1.99 6.46 ± 1.94 88.69 < .001
Depressive symptoms (M ± SD) 12.48 ± 4.29 11.20 ± 3.30 11.71 ± 3.76 127.84 < .001
Present health status (M ± SD) 13.05 ± 2.01 13.70 ± 1.80 13.33 ± 1.99 132.09 < .001
  1. a No responses were excluded