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Table 2 Outcomes by frailty from multivariate regression modelling

From: Frailty assessment and risk prediction by GRACE score in older patients with acute myocardial infarction

 All patients
(n = 198)
Not frail
(CFS 1–4)
(n = 158)
Frail
(CFS 5–9)
(n = 40)
Unadjusted RR per unit increase in CFSp-valueAdjusted RR per unit increase in CFSap-value
Index hospital admission outcome
 Cardiac catheterization141 (71)128 (81)13 (33)0.46 (0.35–0.58)< 0.0010.53 (0.40–0.70)< 0.001
 Dead10 (5)4 (3)6 (15)1.98 (1.60–2.44)< 0.0011.90 (1.47–2.44)< 0.001
At 12 months
 Attended cardiac rehabilitationb62 (33)62 (40)0 (0)0.49 (0.36–0.64)< 0.0010.59 (0.42–0.80)0.001
 Readmittedb46 (24)34 (22)12 (35)1.39 (1.17–1.67)< 0.0011.10 (0.86–1.40)0.44
 Dead33 (17)14 (9)19 (48)1.98 (1.60–2.44)< 0.0011.90 (1.47–2.44)< 0.001
  1. Outcomes presented by frailty status as numbers (%). Modelling is Cox proportional hazards for death and readmission (producing a hazard ratio), and logistic regression for cardiac catheterization and cardiac rehabilitation (producing an odds ratio). In all cases, frailty is considered as a continuous variable. Each risk ratio (hazard ratio or odds ratio) presented as risk change per unit increase in CFS (from 1 to 9) with 95% confidence intervals
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex and Charlson Comorbidity Index score
  3. bIn those who survived to discharge (n = 188; not frail n = 154; frail n = 34)
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