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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by frailty status

From: Frailty assessment and risk prediction by GRACE score in older patients with acute myocardial infarction

 All patients (n = 198)Not frail (CFS 1–4)
(n = 158)
Frail (CFS 5–9)
(n = 40)
Age, years (mean, SD)79 (6)78 (6)83 (7)
Male115 (58)99 (63)16 (40)
Primary diagnosis
 Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction151 (76)122 (77)29 (73)
 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction47 (24)36 (23)11 (28)
Past medical history
 Heart failure36 (18)21 (13)15 (38)
 Stroke35 (18)25 (16)10 (25)
 Diabetes mellitus35 (18)32 (20)3 (8)
 Chronic kidney disease (stage III or worse)45 (23)30 (19)15 (38)
 Peripheral vascular disease28 (14)21 (13)7 (18)
 Chronic respiratory disease39 (20)25 (16)14 (35)
 Dementia14 (7)7 (4)7 (18)
 Current or ex-smoker118 (60)96 (61)22 (55)
Medications at recruitment
 Total number prescribed drugs (mean, SD)9.2 (3.1)8.9 (3.1)10.5 (2.9)
 Aspirin178 (90)144 (91)34 (85)
 Clopidogrel183 (92)145 (92)38 (95)
 ACE-inhibitor or ARB127 (64)113 (72)14 (35)
 Diuretic80 (40)57 (36)23 (58)
 Beta-blocker118 (60)98 (62)20 (50)
 Statin155 (78)132 (84)23 (58)
 Oral anticoagulant26 (13)22 (14)4 (10)
Laboratory measures
 Haemoglobin, g/L (mean, SD)13.1 (1.8)13.1 (1.8)12.7 (2.0)
 Creatinine, μmol/L (mean, SD)104 (45)101 (39)119 (62)
 Estimated GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 (mean, SD)62 (24)65 (23)54 (24)
Risk and functional measures
 GRACE 2 12-month mortality (mean, SD)18.5 (13.2)16.2 (11.7)27.8 (15.0)
 Charlson comorbidity index (mean, SD)2.9 (1.8)2.6 (1.6)3.9 (2.2)
 Karnofsky scale score (mean, SD)78.5 (17.1)84.6 (11.8)54.5 (13.0)
  1. Values are number (%) unless specified
  2. Not frail defined by CFS 1–4 (very fit, well, managing well, vulnerable) and frail by CFS 5–9 (mildly frail, moderately frail, severely frail, very severely frail, terminally ill)
  3. Abbreviations: CFS Clinical Frailty Scale, GFR glomerular filtration rate (calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation), ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, GRACE Global Registry for Acute Coronary Events
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