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Table 3 Study variables

From: Study protocol of a quasi-experimental trial to compare two models of home care for older people in the primary setting

 Definition and MeasurementsCategories
Demographic Characteristics
 AgeAt the moment of entering the HC program65–74
> 85
 Gender Male | Female
Health Status
 CaregiverAt the time of entering the HC programYes | No
 Level of dependencyScale defined by Royal Decree 174/2011; Law 39/2006 of Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for People in Situations of Dependency.Grade I (25–49): Moderate dependency
Grade II (50–74): Severe dependency
Grade III (75–100): Great dependency
 Decubitus ulcerAt physician’s discretionPresence | absence
 Drugs prescribedBy active substance.Not polymedicated (< 5)
Polymedicated (5–10)
Hyperpolymedicated (> 10)
 Comorbidity burdenMeasured by Adjusted Morbidity Groups (GMA) risk assessment tool. GMA considers the type of disease (i.e. acute or chronic), number of systems affected, and complexity of each disease, which is coded by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) and stratify depending on the complexity.31 qualitative ordinal GMA levels.
 MortalityDeath during follow-upYes | No
Realization of CGA Yes | No
Assessments included in CGA
 Performance of normal daily tasksBarthel Scale [27]Total dependency (< 20)
Severe dependency (20–60)
Moderate dependency (61–90)
Mild dependency (91–99)
Autonomous (100)
 Mental healthPfeiffer’s Test [28]High risk (≤2)
Mild cognitive impairment (3–4)
Moderate cognitive impairment (5–7)
Severe cognitive impairment
 Decubitus ulceration riskBraden Test [29]High risk (< 12)
Moderate risk (13–14)
Low risk (15–18)
 Social riskTIRS [30]There is social risk when one indicator over 6 is positive
 AnxietyGoldberg Scale [31]Probable anxiety (≥4 positive responses)
Probable depression (≥2 positive responses)
 Geriatric depression scaleYesavage Scale [32]No depression (1)
Possible depression (≥ 2)
 MobilityTimed Up and Go Test [33]Normal (< 10)
Very little impaired (10–19)
Moderately impaired (20–29)
Severely impaired (≥30)
 ComorbidityCharlson Index [34]No comorbidity (0–1)
Low comorbidity burden (2) High comorbidity burden (> 3)
 Social stateSocial Scale [35]No social risk (≤9)
Social risk (10–14)
Social problem (≥15)
 Overburden of the caregiverZarit Test [25]No overburden (< 46)
Intense overburden (> 56)
 Nutritional state evaluationMNA [36]Malnutrition (≤7)
Malnutrition risk (8–11)
Normal nutritional status (≥12)
 Home adequacyRevision of home adequacy to determine the need of social worker interventionSocial worker is recommended when at least one item is positive
 FallsNumber of falls in the last year
 FrailtyGérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool [37]Frailty identification if one item of the scale is positive.
 Social services costNumber and cost of social worker visits
 Quality of lifeEuroQOL 5D-3 L [24, 38, 39]No problems (Level 1)
Some problems (Level 2)
Extreme problems (Level 3)
Quality of Care
 Physicians PQIPrescription Quality Index of the physician [40]Include assessment of three categories:
More adequate therapeutic alternatives
Hyper prescription of a particular group of drugs
Selection indicators to promote safer and more effective alternatives available
 PrescriptionsNumber of prescription events per patient
 Alternative drugs with therapeutic benefitPercentage of use of the alternative drug as assessed by the physician
 Shared Interdisciplinary Individual plan Yes | No
 ChronicityNumber of Complex Chronic Patients and Advanced Chronic Disease patients in the program
 Satisfaction with health care receivedIEXPAC Scale [23]Satisfactory (=10)
Unsatisfactory (< 10)
 Overburden of the caregiverZarit Scale [25]No overburden (< 46)
Intense overburden (> 56)
Resource Utilization
 Family doctor visitsNumber of at-home visits, other medical professional, primary care center or virtual appointments of the patient or the caregiver
 Nursing staff visitsNumber of at-home visits, other medical professional and primary care center appointments of the patient or the caregiver. Also, number of virtual consultations, including remote evaluation or by phone of medical record
 HospitalizationsNumber of programmed, emergency and daycare admissions
 ReadmissionsNumber of successive hospitalizations due to the same pathology in less than 30 days
 Admissions to other public health care centersNumber of admissions, including convalescence, subacute, long-lasting and palliative units
 Hospitalizations per yearDays hospitalized
 Intermediate resourcesNumber and cost of laboratory tests, Radiology and interconsultations
 Pharmaceutical costsExpenditure per patient and medical professional during a year
 Hospitalization-at-home device useNumber of activations per year and total of hospitalization days
 Social services intensityMonthly hours spent by the social worker. Costs derived from teleassistance, cleaning and cooking aid, reused orthopedic material and family worker
 Call to emergency servicesNumber of patient intervention requests per year.
 Perception of healthcare professionalsQualitative, self-administered questionnaire of difficulties in HC practice, based on the survey reported by Linares et al. [20] 
  1. CGA Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, HC Home Care