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Table 4 Factors associated with frailty stratified by gender from mixed-effects Poisson regression model

From: Prevalence and associated factors for frailty among elder patients in China: a multicentre cross-sectional study

ParametersMale
OR (95% CI)
Female
OR (95% CI)
Age
 65–691.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 70–741.111 (1.040, 1.187)1.098 (1.029, 1.172)
 75–791.169 (1.085,1.259)1.141 (1.055, 1.233)
 80–841.280 (1.166, 1.405)1.258 (1.140,1.389)
 85+1.407 (1.228, 1.613)1.322 (1.085, 1.611)
BMI
 18.5–23.91.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  < 18.51.368 (1.254, 1.491)1.158 (1.047,1.282)
 24–27.90.888 (0.806, 0.979)
  ≥ 280.851 (0.798, 0.908)
Nationality
 Han nationality1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Minority1.146 (1.015, 1.294)1.192 (1.077, 1.319)
Education
 Illiteracy1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Primary school0.899 (0.827, 0.978)
 Middle school0.874 (0.799, 0.956)
 Diploma and above0.871 (0.772, 0.983)
Admission to hospital
 Outpatient department1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Emergency department1.130 (1.036, 1.233)
 Transit from other hospitals1.168 (1.035, 1.319)
Living conditions
 Building with elevators1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Bungalow1.120 (1.028, 1.220)
Drinking history
 Non-drinker1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Current drinker0.878 (0.819, 0.941)
 Former drinker1.109 (1.031, 1.193)
Fall history in last 12 months
 No1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Yes1.259 (1.167, 1.357)1.266 (1.185, 1.354)
Cognition impairment
 No1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Yes1.224 (1.147, 1.306)1.155 (1.077, 1.238)
Vision
 Normal1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Dysfunction1.101 (1.019, 1.189)1.173 (1.090, 1.262)
Hearing
 Normal1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Dysfunction1.080 (1.002, 1.165)
Sleeping
 Normal1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Dysfunction1.242 (1.179, 1.309)1.319 (1.235, 1.407)
Urinary function
 Normal1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Dysfunction1.138 (1.056, 1.228)1.279 (1.167, 1.401)
Defecation function
 Normal1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
 Dysfunction1.336 (1.243, 1.435)1.207 (1.110, 1.312)
  1. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval
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