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Table 4 Results of Multilevel Models Examining Concurrent and Lagged Effects of Depressive Symptoms on Memory Self-Report

From: Memory complaints and depressive symptoms over time: a construct-level replication analysis

 Self-rated MemoryPerceived Memory Decline
Model 1Model 2
NHATS
b (SE)
HRS
b (SE)
NHATS
OR (95%CI)
HRS
OR (95%CI)
Intercept2.552** (0.019)2.902** (0.061)
Time0.059** (0.004)0.048** (0.003)1.209** (1.143–1.279)1.144** (1.120–1.169)
Depressive Symptomswp0.021** (0.006)0.022** (0.004)1.286** (1.189–1.390)1.145** (1.115–1.177)
Depressive Symptomslag0.003 (0.007)0.009 (0.004)1.040 (0.948–1.142)1.012 (0.982–1.043)
Female (ref = male)−0.006 (0.025)−.0.122** (0.026)1.131 (0.864–1.479)0.885 (0.751–1.044)
Education: <HS (ref = HS education)0.056 (0.040)0.138** (0.027)1.377 (0.906–2.093)0.854 (0.720–1.013)
Education: > HS (ref = HS education)−0.193** (0.028)− 0.143** (0.035)1.368 (1.019–1.836)1.296 (1.048–1.602)
Age category−0.096 (0.182)− 0.356 (0.235)1.291 (0.203–8.196)1.200 (0.269–5.350)
Black (ref = White)0.193** (0.031)0.098 (0.040)0.984 (0.709–1.367)1.131 (0.880–1.453)
Income $15,000 - $30,000 (ref = < $15,000)0.001 (0.036)−0.032 (0.030)1.051 (0.727–1.521)0.856 (0.702–1.043)
Income $30,001–$60,000 (ref = < $15,000)−0.072 (0.032)− 0.071 (0.038)0.654 (0.459–0.932)0.976 (0.771–1.234)
Income > $60,000 (ref = < $15,000)−0.143** (0.033)− 0.068 (0.047)0.792 (0.558–1.124)1.024 (0.765–1.370)
Single/Widowed (ref = Married/Partnered)0.023 (0.026)−0.064 (0.028)1.021 (0.777–1.343)0.831 (0.696–0.993)
  1. Note. HRS and NHATS datasets were analyzed in separate multilevel analyses. Additionally, the association of depressive symptoms (predictor) with self-rated memory (Model 1) and perceived 2-year memory decline (Model 2) were analyzed separately. Results from analyses with NHATS and HRS data are presented together for ease of comparison. All models were analyzed separately. HS = High School; WP = baseline within person. **p ≤ .001. *p ≤ .01
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