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Table 3 Regressing PCS, showing unstandardized regression coefficients

From: The paradox of aging and health-related quality of life in Asian Chinese: results from the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

  PCS
model 1 model 2 model 3 model 4
Age −0.28 (0.015)** −0.22 (0.017)** − 0.025 (0.017) 0.055 (0.059)
Covariates
 Female (ref. male)   −1.73 (0.26)** 0.34 (0.33) 0.33 (0.33)
 Elementary school (ref. illiterate)   −0.47 (0.41) −0.45 (0.36) − 0.48 (0.36)
 Middle school or higher (ref. illiterate)   0.30 (0.47) 0.27 (0.42) 0.20 (0.42)
 Employed (ref. unemployed)   1.45 (0.29)** 0.86 (0.26)** 0.87 (0.26)**
 Partnered (ref. unpartnered)   −0.39 (0.31) − 0.64 (0.27)* −0.67 (0.28)*
 Living in urban areas (ref. rural)   1.38 (0.24)** 1.15 (0.21)** 1.12 (0.21)**
 Cohabitant (ref. alone)   −1.34 (0.44)* −0.92 (0.39)* −0.91 (0.39)*
 MMSE   0.22 (0.043)** −0.080 (0.039)* −0.088 (0.039)*
 CES-D   −0.31 (0.019)** −0.18 (0.018)** − 0.17 (0.018)**
Objective health indicators
 Handgrip strength    0.11 (0.018)** −0.18 (0.098)
 SPPB    1.63 (0.050)** 3.07 (0.42)**
Interaction terms
 Age*handgrip     0.0043 (0.0014)*
 Age*SPPB     −0.020 (0.0056)**
  1. Note: N = 5022. *p-value< 0.05, ** p-value< 0.001. Model 1: age (unadjusted); model 2: same as model 1 plus demographic, SES, MMSE, and CES-D variables; model 3: same as model 2 plus objective health indicators; model 4: same as model 3 plus interactions between age and objective health indicators. Preliminary analyses did not find any evidence for quadratic or cubic age terms (ps > .05); therefore, subsequent analyses included only a linear age term
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