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Table 1 Descriptive statistics. Mean (SE) or proportions (%)

From: The paradox of aging and health-related quality of life in Asian Chinese: results from the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

Characteristics All Young old (< 65 y) Old old (≥65 y)
N (%) 5664 (100.0) 1686 (29.8) 3978 (70.2)
Age (mean ± SE)** 69.6 ± 0.1 59.8 ± 0.06 73.8 ± 0.09
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Female (%) 2988 (52.8) 886 (52.6) 2102 (52.8)
 Education level**
  Illiterate 799 (14.1) 49 (2.9) 750 (18.9)
  Elementary school 2322 (41.0) 570 (33.8) 1752 (44.1)
  Middle school or higher 2539 (44.9) 1065 (63.2) 1474 (37.1)
 Employed (%)** 1433 (25.3) 783 (46.4) 650 (16.3)
 Partnered (%)** 4159 (73.4) 1438 (85.3) 2721 (68.4)
 Reside in urban area (%) 2911 (51.4) 891 (52.8) 2020 (50.8)
 Cohabitant (%)** 5155 (91.0) 1579 (93.7) 3576 (89.9)
Health-related variables
 Handgrip strength (mean ± SE)** 29.0 ± 0.1 33.1 ± 0.2 27.3 ± 0.2
 SPPB (mean ± SE)** 10.4 ± 0.03 11.4 ± 0.03 10.0 ± 0.05
 MMSE (mean ± SE)** 26.2 ± 0.05 28.0 ± 0.06 25.4 ± 0.06
 Depression (CES-D > 16; %) 318 (5.6) 98 (5.8) 220 (5.5)
HRQoL
 PCS (mean ± SE)** 46.8 ± 0.1 49.3 ± 0.2 45.7 ± 0.2
 MCS (mean ± SE)** 59.3 ± 0.1 58.7 ± 0.2 59.6 ± 0.1
  1. Kruskal–Wallis test or \( {\chi}_2^2 \) test was conducted to detect the differences between two groups (Young old, and Old old)
  2. * p-value< 0.05, ** p-value< 0.001
  3. a Urban: *City: Taipei, Changhua, Kaohsiung, Hualien *Rural: Miaoli, Yangmei, Shoufeng, Chiayi
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