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Table 2 Characteristics of participants according to dementia disorder

From: The association between cognition and gait in a representative sample of very old people – the influence of dementia and walking aid use

CharacteristicNo dementia
n = 853
Dementia
n = 464
Age, years
(range)
88.4 ± 4.2
(84–103)
91.1 ± 4.9**
(84–103)
Age group, years, n (%)
 85472 (55.3)146 (31.5)
 90243 (28.5)140 (30.2)
 ≥95138 (16.2)178 (38.4)
Women, n (%)548 (64.2)345 (74.4)**
Nursing home resident, n (%), n = 1314155 (18.2)307 (66.2)**
Lives alone, n (%), n = 1311632 (74.1)382 (83.4)**
Education < 8 years, n (%), n = 1278561 (66.3)336 (77.8)**
Currently smoking, n (%), n = 130833 (3.9)6 (1.3)*
Diagnoses and medical conditions, n (%)
 Parkinson’s disease14 (1.6)8 (1.7)
 Depressive disorders225 (26.4)221 (47.6)**
 Cerebrovascular disease159 (18.6)101 (21.8)
 Myocardial infarction previous year22 (2.6)11 (2.4)
 Heart failure226 (26.5)171 (36.9)**
 History of hip fracture111 (13.0)108 (23.3)**
 Diabetes147 (17.2)74 (15.9)
 Osteoarthritis414 (48.5)194 (41.8)*
 Malignancy previous 5 years124 (14.5)41 (8.8)*
Routine prescription medications, n (%)
 Benzodiazepines215 (25.2)151 (32.5)*
 Beta-blockers365 (42.8)135 (29.1)**
 Antidepressants91 (10.7)148 (31.9)**
 Diuretics431 (50.5)245 (52.8)
 Analgesics260 (30.5)257 (55.4)**
 Neuroleptics44 (5.2)105 (22.6)**
Number of prescribed medications6.2 ± 4.07.4 ± 3.8**
Assessments
 Systolic blood pressure, n = 1268150.9 ± 22.6138.8 ± 22.5**
 Diastolic blood pressure, n = 126475.5 ± 11.872.3 ± 12.4**
 Body Mass Index, n = 126225.9 ± 4.225.0 ± 4.7*
 Barthel ADL Index (0–20), n = 131018.7 ± 2.612.2 ± 6.6**
 Geriatric Depression Scale (0–15), n = 11343.3 ± 2.54.2 ± 3.0**
 Mini-Mental State Examination (0–30)25.4 ± 3.313.2 ± 7.4**
 Vision impairment, n (%), n = 127189 (10.5)114 (27.1)**
 Hearing impairment, n (%), n = 130293 (11.0)142 (31.3)**
Used walking aid in gait speed test, n (%), n = 1024185 (24.0)136 (53.5)**
Gait Speed, m/s0.54 ± 0.24 0.30 ± 0.23 **
Missing Gait Speed values, n (%)79 (9.3)208 (44.8)
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), unless stated otherwise. Geriatric Depression Scale: higher score indicate more depressive symptoms. Difference in means or proportions between group with measured vs. missing gait speed values, at:
  2. **p < 0.001
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. Measured and imputed Gait Speed values