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Table 1 Characteristics of participants, total sample and according to ability to perform gait speed test

From: The association between cognition and gait in a representative sample of very old people – the influence of dementia and walking aid use

CharacteristicTotal
n = 1317
Measured GS
n = 1030
Missing GS
n = 287
Age, years
(range)
89.4 ± 4.6
(84–103)
88.7 ± 4.3
(84–103)
91.6 ± 4.9**
(84–103)
Age group, years, n (%)
 85618 (46.9)535 (51.9)84 (29.2)
 90383 (29.1)302 (29.3)81 (28.1)
 ≥95316 (24.0)193 (18.7)123 (42.3)
Women, n (%)893 (67.8)670 (65.0)224 (77.8)**
Nursing home resident, n (%), n = 1314462 (35.2)266 (25.9)196 (68.3)**
Lives alone, n (%), n = 13111014 (77.3)770 (75.0)244 (85.9)**
Education < 8 years, n (%), n = 1278897 (70.2)698 (68.9)199 (75.1)*
Currently smoking, n (%), n = 130839 (3.0)31 (3.0)8 (2.8)
Diagnoses and medical conditions, n (%)
 Dementia disorder464 (35.2)256 (24.9)208 (72.2)**
 Parkinson’s disease22 (1.7)14 (1.4)8 (2.8)
 Depressive disorders446 (33.9)313 (30.4)134 (46.5)**
 Cerebrovascular disease260 (19.7)180 (17.5)81 (28.1)**
 Myocardial infarction previous year33 (2.5)25 (2.4)8 (2.8)
 Heart failure397 (30.1)276 (26.8)122 (42.4)**
 History of hip fracture219 (16.6)142 (13.8)77 (26.7)**
 Diabetes221 (16.8)171 (16.6)50 (17.4)
 Osteoarthritis608 (46.2)473 (45.9)136 (47.2)
 Malignancy previous 5 years165 (12.5)138 (13.4)27 (9.4)
Routine prescription medications, n (%)
 Benzodiazepines366 (27.8)267 (25.9)99 (34.4)*
 Beta-blockers500 (38.0)418 (40.6)82 (28.5)**
 Antidepressants239 (18.1)150 (14.6)90 (31.3)**
 Diuretics676 (51.3)520 (50.5)157 (54.5)
 Analgesics517 (39.3)340 (33.0)178 (61.8)**
 Neuroleptics149 (11.3)77 (7.5)73 (25.3)**
Number of prescribed medications6.6 ± 46.3 ± 4.07.8 ± 3.7**
Assessments
 Systolic blood pressure, n = 1268146.8 ± 23.3149.6 ± 22.7135.9 ± 22.3**
 Diastolic blood pressure, n = 126474.4 ± 12.075.1 ± 12.071.6 ± 11.9**
 Barthel ADL Index (0–20), n = 131016.5 ± 5.518.4 ± 2.89.4 ± 6.7**
 Geriatric Depression Scale (0–15), n = 11343.6 ± 2.63.4 ± 2.64.7 ± 2.9**
 Mini-Mental State Examination (0–30)21.1 ± 7.823.4 ± 5.713.4 ± 9.1**
 Vision impairment, n (%), n = 1271203 (16.0)119 (11.7)84 (33.1)**
 Hearing impairment, n (%), n = 1302235 (18.0)141 (13.8)94 (32.8)**
Used walking aid in gait speed test, n (%), n = 1024321 (31.3)321 (31.4)N/A
Gait Speed, m/s0.45 ± 0.26 0.53 ± 0.220.18 ± 0.22 **
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), unless stated otherwise. Geriatric Depression Scale: higher score indicate more depressive symptoms. Difference in means or proportions between group with measured vs. missing gait speed values, at:
  2. **p < 0.001
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. Measured and imputed Gait Speed values
  5. Imputed Gait Speed values