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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable regression analysis assessing the association between each modifiable factor and the Life Space Index

From: Modifiable factors related to life-space mobility in community-dwelling older adults: results from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

VariableUnivariate Coefficient (95% CI)R2Multivariable Coefficient (95% CI)
Walking
• Walking speed§4.98 (4.67, 5.28)***0.0761.07 (0.65, 1.49) ***
Balance
• Single Leg Stance§3.05 (2.74, 3.36) ***0.0310.35 (−0.03, 0.74)
Grip
• Grip strength§4.71 (4.39, 5.03) ***0.0681.08 (0.52, 1.64) ***
Body Mass Index
• NormalRef0.016Ref
• Under−7.52 (−11.01, − 4.03) ***− 5.2 (− 10.17, − 0.23)*
• Over1.25 (0.48, 2.02) **0.96 (0.13, 1.78)*
• Obese I−1.21 (−2.14, −0.29) *0.62 (− 0.45, 1.68)
• Obese II−4.15 (− 5.59, − 2.72) ***− 0.37 (− 2.23, 1.49)
• Obese III− 11.39 (− 13.51, − 9.28) ***−2.01 (− 5.12, 1.1)
Smoking
• Non-smokerRef0.006Ref
• Smoker−6.9 (−8.49, −5.3) ***−3.37 (− 5.42, − 1.32)**
• Former− 0.19 (− 0.84, 0.47) ***− 0.26 (− 0.98, 0.46)
Nutritional Risk
• Nutritional Risk§3.22 (2.95, 3.49) ***0.0320.53 (0.12, 0.95)*
Pain
• NoRef0.019Ref
• Yes−5.07 (−5.73, −4.41) ***−1.05 (− 1.81, −0.29)**
Fatigue
• NoRef0.018Ref
• Yes−9.62 (−10.9, −8.34) ***−1.99 (−3.68, −0.31)*
Vision
• Good/Very Good/ExcellentRef0.013Ref
• Poor/Fair−7.19 (−8.31, −6.08) ***−2.08 (−3.53, −0.63)**
Driving
• Not DrivingRef0.091Ref
• Driving without situational avoidance22.55 (21.24, 23.85) ***9.67 (7.86, 11.47)***
• Driving with situational avoidance18.20 (17.06, 19.34) ***8.02 (6.38, 9.66)***
Social Support
• MOS Social Support Survey§3.47 (3.16, 3.79) ***0.0361.37 (0.95, 1.79)***
Depressive Symptoms
• NoRef0.026Ref
• Yes−8.24 (−9.12, −7.35) ***−1.65 (−2.79, −0.51)**
Executive Function
• Mental Alternation Test§2.36 (2.04, 2.69) ***0.0170.41 (0.03, 0.8) *
Memory
• REYII§0.47 (0.15, 0.80) **0.001−0.23 (−0.62, 0.15)
TOTAL R20.135
  1. Multivariable model is adjusted for age, sex, education, income, residing in urban/rural, lives with partner, and number of chronic conditions
  2. Ref: reference category
  3. §Higher scores indicate better performance on the measure
  4. *** < 0.001, ** < 0.01, * < 0.05
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