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Table 1 Baseline assessment at enrolment

From: Pain and recurrent falls in the older and oldest-old non-institutionalized population

Variable65–79 years 80 or more years 
no pain - mild painmoderate-severe painpno pain - mild painmoderate-severe painp
Age (years)
mean (SD)72.16 (4.24)71.54 (4.15)0.36884.81 (4.22)84.67 (4.22)0.702
minimum-maximum65–7965–79 80–9980–100 
Gender
women (%)75 (49.34)45 (78.95)<  0.01187 (58.62)144 (71.29)<  0.01
men77 (50.66)12 (21.05) 132 (41.38)58 (28.71) 
Education
university students (%)11 (7.28)3 (5.26)0.45218 (5.75)3 (1.52)0.038
middle school21 (13.91)4 (7.02)33 (10.54)14 (7.07)
elementary school89 (58.94)35 (61.40)175 (55.91)112 (56.57)
none30 (19.87)15 (26.32)87 (27.80)69 (34.85)
Address
live alone (nobody) (%)26 (13.90)17 (24.64)0.05495 (27.30)52 (22.61)0.272
partner/spouse103 (55.08)29 (42.03)0.036114 (32.76)67 (29.13)0.507
son/daughter48 (25.67)20 (28.96)0.62396 (27.59)73 (31.74)0.210
grandson/granddaughter9 (4.81)3 (4.35)1.00024 (6.90)23 (10)0.160
non-family caregiver1 (0.53)01.00019 (5.46)15 (6.52)0.587
Technical assistance for walking at home
none (%)137 (95.80)49 (87.5)0.614234 (69.85)115 (55.29)<  0.01
furniture support1 (0.70)3 (5.36)0.06012 (3.58)12 (5.77)0.286
person0010009 (2.69)9 (4.33)0.334
cane (unipodal/English)/tripod2 (1.40)4 (7.14)0.24748 (14.33)40 (19.23)0.148
walker with/without wheels1 (0.70)01.00018 (5.37)13 (6.25)0.584
wheelchair2 (1.40)01.00014 (4.18)19 (9.13)0.027
Technical assistance for walking on the street
none (%)130 (91.55)50 (87.72)0.648190 (59.19)86 (42.16)<  0.01
furniture support001.00002 (0.98)0.149
person1 (0.70)1 (1.75)0.46713 (4.05)14 (6.86)0.159
cane (unipodal/bipodal)/tripod9 (6.34)6 (10.53)0.76784 (26.17)69 (33.82)0.066
walker with/without wheels1 (0.70)01.00012 (3.74)12 (5.88)0.235
wheelchair1 (0.70)01.00022 (6.85)21 (10.29)0.190
Functional status (range 0–6; 0 independent)
mean (SD)0.22 (0.63)0.39 (0.98)0.2920.96 (1.74)1.73 (2.17)< 0.01
minimum-maximum0–50–6 0–60–6 
Body mass index
mean (SD)28.84 (4.22)29.12 (4.6)0.82828.07 (4.99)29.11 (5.21)0.037
≥ 1 fall in the previous 6 months (%)32 (21.05)12 (21.05)100072 (22.64)79 (39.11)< 0.01
Chronic diseases
hypertension (%)77 (50.66)33 (57.89)0.437152 (47.65)108 (53.47)0.209
diabetes mellitus 2 (%)29 (19.21)11 (19.30)100050 (15.67)51 (25.25)<  0.01
dyslipidaemia (%)54 (35.76)26 (45.61)0.20561 (19.18)58 (28.71)0.014
acute myocardial infarction/other heart diseases (%)46 (15.18)28 (24.56)0.06187 (13.81)74 (18.32)0.134
bronchial asthma/COPD (%)37 (12.17)8 (7.02)0.63979 (12.42)52 (12.87)0.751
arthrosis or arthritis (%)74 (48.68)47 (82.46)< 0.01169 (52.98)158 (78.22)< 0.01
osteoporosis (%)18 (11.84)19 (33.33)<  0.0135 (11.04)52 (26)< 0.01
good visual acuity (%)134 (88.16)48 (84.21)0.489249 (81.11)155 (78.68)0.567
Cognitive decline
Pfeiffer, 0–2 errors (%)132 (88.59)52 (91.23)0.801226 (73.14)142 (70,30)0.483
Pfeiffer, 3 or more errors175 8360 
Affective symptoms (Yesavage test: 2 or more points) (%)21 (13.91)17 (29.82)0.01593 (31.31)104 (53.06)< 0.01
Balance (total score), range 0–7
mean (SD)6.56 (0.98)6.49 (0.98)0.6115.42 (2.13)4.59 (2.37)< 0.01
minimum-maximum1–73–7 0–70–7 
Total strength (total score), range 0–34
mean (SD)32.69 (2.29)31.98 (3.88)0.32228.94 (8.15)23.83 (10.59)< 0.01
minimum-maximum20–3412–34 0–340–34 
Number of drugs
mean (SD)3.56 (2.68)4.77 (2.85)<  0.014.06 (2.45)5.06 (2.61)< 0.01
minimum-maximum0–120–11 0–110–12 
1 or more drugs with risk of falls (%)31 (20.39)22 (38.60)<  0.0193 (29.15)77 (38.12)0.029
1 or more analgesics (%)21 (14.29)17 (30.36)<  0.0181 (25.47)86 (43.22)<  0.01
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease