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Table 1 Similarities and differences between LiFE and gLiFE conducted in the LiFE-is-LiFE trial [10]

From: Group or individual lifestyle-integrated functional exercise (LiFE)? A qualitative analysis of acceptability

  LiFE gLiFE
Brief aim Improve balance and lower limb strength, increase physical activity, decrease risk of falling, long-term sustainability of the LiFE activities through habit formation and self-empowerment
What: Materials Participant’s manual, German version [22]; Contains descriptions and instructions of LiFE activities; principles of balance and strength training as well as physical activity enhancement; safety instructions when performing the activities; background on balance and strength exercise; assistance and support for changing habits and performing LiFE activities
Trainer’s manual, German version; one for LiFE, one for gLiFE. Contains all information also included in the participant’s manual; additionally: outline of all 7 sessions and 2 phone calls, including text templates, material, preparations, and precautions
Workbook; for all participants; used during intervention: Includes information on study procedures, personnel, contacts, and safety instructions; activity planning sheets for balance, strength, and physical activity; activity counter, notes pages; LiFE principles
Aids and materials during intervention sessions: Laminated cards, showing LiFE principles and LiFE activities to be used as visual aids during intervention sessions; balls, blankets, sponge rubber, boxes, clipboards, pens, bags, name tags, flipcharts
What: Procedures 7 home visits by one qualified trainer; 2 phone calls 4 and 10 weeks after last session 7 group sessions (n = 8–12 participants) led by one main and one co-trainer, 2 phone calls 4 and 10 weeks after last session
Who provided Trainers are sport scientists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists or psychologists. All trainers received a two-day training course on the program background, aims, and components prior to the project start.
How One-to-one situation in the participant’s home Group setting with 8–12 participants and two trainers
Where Two study sites: Heidelberg and Stuttgart (Germany)
When and how much 7 sessions within 11 weeks: week 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11. Two phone calls 4 and 10 weeks after the last session (i.e. week 15 and 21). Duration of each session: 1–1.5 h See LiFE
Duration of each session: 2–2.5 h
Setting Intensity and dose are determined by the individuals’ activity plans, adherence, and performance level of each activity
Behavior change Behavior change theories based on LiFE trainer’s manual and participant’s manual [21]. Modification of the original behavior change concept using established theories on health behavior, such as the Health Action Process Approach [23, 24] and the Self-Determination Theory [25]. Intervention contents of gLiFE were mapped using the Behavior Change Technique (BCT) Taxonomy v1 [26].