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Table 4 Difference among ADL types with included variables

From: The activity of daily living (ADL) subgroups and health impairment among Chinese elderly: a latent profile analysis

Variables Class one Class two Class three P value
Sex     <0.001
 Male 3021 (49.84%) 575 (37.68%) 212 (40.77%)  
 Female 3041 (50.16%) 951 (62.32%) 308 (59.23%)  
Age (year)     <0.001
 65–79 3348 (55.23%) 100 (6.55%) 48 (9.23%)  
 80–105 2714 (44.77%) 1426 (93.45%) 472 (90.77%)  
The place of residence     <0.001
 Urban 3472 (57.27%) 934 (61.21%) 358 (68.85%)  
 Rural 2590 (42.73%) 592 (38.79%) 162 (31.15%)  
Education     <0.001
 Illiterate 2146 (35.40%) 974 (63.83%) 298 (57.31%)  
 Educated 3916 (64.60%) 552 (36.17%) 222 (42.69%)  
Marital status     <0.001
 Living without spouse 2644 (43.62%) 1226 (80.34%) 417 (80.19%)  
 Living with spouse 3418 (56.38%) 300 (19.66%) 103 (19.81%)  
Physical exercise (recently)     <0.001
 No 3443 (56.80%) 1249 (81.85%) 468 (90.00%)  
 Yes 2619 (43.20%) 277 (18.15%) 52 (10.00%)  
Social activity (recently)     <0.001
 No 4836 (79.78%) 1435 (94.04%) 494 (95.00%)  
 Yes 1226 (20.22%) 91 (5.96%) 26 (5.00%)  
BMI     <0.001
 underweight 690 (11.38%) 331 (21.69%) 133 (25.58%)  
 normal 3083 (50.86%) 837 (54.85%) 264 (50.77%)  
 overweight 1725 (28.46%) 258 (16.91%) 80 (15.38%)  
 obese 564 (9.30%) 100 (6.55%) 43 (8.27%)  
Experience of falls     <0.001
 No 4942 (81.52%) 1076 (70.51%) 350 (67.31%)  
 Yes 1120 (18.48%) 450 (29.49%) 170 (32.69%)  
Hypertension     <0.001
 No 3295 (54.35%) 901 (59.04%) 293 (56.35%)  
 Yes 2767 (45.65%) 625 (40.96%) 227 (43.65%)  
Diabetes     0.037
 No 5362 (88.45%) 1385 (90.76%) 461 (88.65%)  
 Yes 700 (11.55%) 141 (9.24%) 59 (11.35%)  
Heart disease     <0.001
 No 5012 (82.68%) 1247 (81.72%) 393 (75.58%)  
 Yes 1050 (17.32%) 279 (18.28%) 127 (24.42%)  
Stroke     <0.001
 No 5482 (90.43%) 1347 (88.27%) 403 (77.50%)  
 Yes 580 (9.57%) 179 (11.73%) 117 (22.50%)  
Asthma     <0.001
 No 5533 (91.27%) 1355 (88.79%) 436 (83.85%)  
 Yes 529 (8.73%) 171 (11.21%) 84 (16.15%)  
Cancera     0.646
 No 5968 (98.45%) 1505 (98.62%) 510 (98.08%)  
 Yes 94 (1.55%) 21 (1.38%) 10 (1.92%)  
MMSE     <0.001
 Normal 5407 (89.19%) 782 (51.25%) 174 (33.46%)  
 Cognitive decline 655 (10.81%) 744 (48.75%) 346 (66.54%)  
Depression     <0.001
 Normal 4639 (76.53%) 997 (65.33%) 313 (60.19%)  
 Having depression symptoms 1423 (23.47%) 529 (34.67%) 207 (39.81%)  
  1. Class one: ‘no BADL limitation-no IADL limitation’; Class two: ‘no BADL limitation- IADL impairment’; Class three: ‘BADL impairment- IADL impairment’. aFisher’s exact test