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Table 1 Baseline comparison of study participants

From: Medication adherence support of an in-home electronic medication dispensing system for individuals living with chronic conditions: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Intervention (n = 23) Control (n = 25) Statistic p-value
AGE (Years)    −2.22a 0.03d
Mean (SD) 63.96 (7.86) 59.52 (5.93)
Age Range 51–82 51–78
SEX    0.01b 0.91
Female 16 (69.6%) 17 (68.0%)
ETHNICITY    0.02 0.89
White/Caucasian 21 (91.3%) 24 (96.0%)
Aboriginal 1 (4.3%) 1(4.0%)
South East Asian 1 (4.3%)
LIVING ARRANGEMENT    0.02 0.88
Alone in residence 8 (34.8%) 12 (48.0%)
With Spouse 8 (34.8%) 5 (20.0%)
With family member(s) other than spouse 4 (17.4%) 3 (12.0%)
Other 3 (13.0%) 5 (20.0%)
EDUCATION    0.03 0.86
Less than High School Diploma 5 (22.7%) 7 (28.0%)
High School Diploma 4 (18.2%) 6 (24.0%)
Some College, no degree 11 (50%) 7 (28.0%)
Bachelor’s Degree 2 (9.1%) 5 (20.0%)
EMPLOYMENT STATUS    0.29 0.59
Employed 1 (4.3%) 1 (4.0%)
Unemployed 1 (4.3%) 2 (8.0%)
Retired 11 (47.8%) 6 (24.0%)
Disabled 10 (43.5) 16 (64.0%)
ANNUAL INCOME    3.61 0.06
< $21,000 9 (39.1%) 16 (66.7%)
$21,000 - $40,000 9 (39.1%) 6 (25.0%)
> $40,000 5 (21.7%) 2 (8.3%)
CHRONIC HEALTH CONDITIONS
Mean (SD) 4.48 (2.19) 4.20 (1.98) −0.46a 0.65
MEDICATION     
Prescriptions     
Mean (SD) 9.39 (3.73) 10.12 (4.76) 0.59a 0.56
Over-the-counter
Mean (SD) 1.68 (1.84) 2.12 (2.74) 0.63a 5.53
HELP TAKING MEDICATION
Yes 5 (21.7%) 4 (16.0%) 0.26 0.61
CAREGIVER
Yes 3 (15.8%) 5 (22.7%) 0.31 0.58
SEEK MEDICATION HELPc    3.09 0.69
Pharmacist 17 (42.5%) 20 (40.0%)
General Physician 19 (47.5%) 23 (46.0%)
Specialist 3 (7.5%) 3 (6.0%)
Homecare Staff (Nurse/HCA) 0 1 (2.0%)
Other 1 (2.5%) 3 (6.0%)
MANAGEMENT METHOD    1.15 0.28
Blister Pack 5 (26.3%) 12 (52.2%)
Pill Organizers 9 (47.4%) 4 (17.4%)
None (pill containers) 2 (10.5%) 6 (26.1%)
Other 3 (15.8%) 1 (4.3%)
MEDICATION TIMES/DAY    −0.11a 0.91
Mean (SD) 2.91 (0.92) 2.87 (1.11)
  1. aCalculated using Independent T-test for Equality of Means
  2. bPearson Chi-square test was used for comparison. For other questions, Chi-Square test for trend was used
  3. cPercentages compiled using multiple response analysis and p-value reported using chi-square test
  4. dSignificant differences at 95% confidence level