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Table 1 Description of different tests

From: Design and rationale of a routine clinical care pathway and prospective cohort study in older patients needing intensive treatment





Geriatric screening


G-8 [19]

8-item screening test. Assesses domains of nutritional status, mobility, neuropsychological problems, medication use, self-rated health status and age

Score ranges from 0 to 17, lower score indicates more impairment, cut-off score ≤ 14

6CIT [20, 21]

6-item cognitive screening test. One memory, two attention and three orientation questions

Score ranges from 0 to 28, higher score indicates more significant cognitive impairment, cut-off score > 7


Comprehensive geriatric assessment


Somatic status

 Medical history

Polypharmacy, multi-morbidity using CCI [22]: 16 medical condition of which 3 are stratified according to severity

Score ranges from 0 to 33, higher score indicates more comorbidities

 Physical measurement

Weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, orthostatic hypotension, complete physical examination on indication


 MNA-SF® [23]

6-item screening test. Assesses loss of appetite, weight loss, BMI, mobility, the occurrence of stress or an acute disease and neuropsychological problems

Score ranges from 0 to 14, lower score indicates greater risk of malnutrition, cut-off score ≤ 11

Psychological status

 PHQ-2 [24]

2-item screening test for depression

Score ranges from 0 to 6, higher score indicates more depressive symptoms, cut-off score ≥ 3

 GDS-15 [25]

15-item questionnaire. Assesses depressive symptoms

Score ranges from 0 to 15, higher score indicates more depressive symptoms, cut-off score ≥ 5

 Optimism questionnaire [26]

3-item questionnaire. Assesses optimism on a 5-point Likert scale: 0 corresponds to “strongly disagree” and 4 to “strongly agree”

Score ranges from 0 to 12, higher score indicates greater optimism

 VAT [27]

Learning task that assesses visual associative memory

Score ranges from 0 to 12, lower score indicates more cognitive impairment

 Clock drawing [28]

Cognitive test that assesses visuospatial and executive functioning

Score ranges from 0 to 14, lower score indicates more executive impairment, cut-off score < 10

Functional status

 Katz ADL [29]

6-item questionnaire. Assesses bathing, dressing, toileting, transfers, continence and feeding

Score ranges from 0 to 6, higher score indicates greater dependency

 Lawton IADL [30]

8-item questionnaire. Assesses more complex independent living skills: ability to use a phone, shopping, food preparation, housekeeping, laundry, mode of transportation, responsibility for personal medications, ability to handle finances

Score ranges from 0 to 8, lower score indicates greater dependency

 Gait speed [31, 32]

Timed 4-m walking test

Lower score represents slow gait speed, cut-off speed ≤0.8 m/s

 Handgrip strength [33, 34]

Handgrip strength measurement, using a Jamar Handheld

Dynamometer. Best of 3 measurements using the dominant hand

Reference values depend on age and gender

Social status

Living arrangement (independent, institutionalised, hospitalised), the availability of a caregiver, hours of (home)care


Quality of life

 EQ-5D-3L [35, 36]

5-item questionnaire. Assesses health-related quality of life exploring five dimensions: mobility, self-care, daily activities, pain/complaints, mood. Three possible levels of answers: no problems, some problems, extreme problems

An index score is calculated, score ranges from − 0.33 to 1.0. Score < 0 represents worse than dead and 1 represents full health

 EQ-VAS [35, 36]

Verbal description of an overall health state visual analogue scale, registered on a numerical rating scale

Score ranges from 0 to 100, higher score indicates higher health-related quality of life

  1. Abbreviations: 6CIT 6 Item Cognitive Impairment Test, ADL Activities of Daily Living, BMI Body mass index, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, EQ-5D-3L EuroQol five dimensions three levels questionnaire, EQ-VAS EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale, G-8 Geriatric eight, GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale-15, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, MNA-SF® Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form, N/A Not applicable, PHQ-2 Patient Health Questionnaire, VAT Visual Association Test