Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of different tests

From: Design and rationale of a routine clinical care pathway and prospective cohort study in older patients needing intensive treatment

Test Explanation Scores
  Geriatric screening  
G-8 [19] 8-item screening test. Assesses domains of nutritional status, mobility, neuropsychological problems, medication use, self-rated health status and age Score ranges from 0 to 17, lower score indicates more impairment, cut-off score ≤ 14
6CIT [20, 21] 6-item cognitive screening test. One memory, two attention and three orientation questions Score ranges from 0 to 28, higher score indicates more significant cognitive impairment, cut-off score > 7
  Comprehensive geriatric assessment  
Somatic status
 Medical history Polypharmacy, multi-morbidity using CCI [22]: 16 medical condition of which 3 are stratified according to severity Score ranges from 0 to 33, higher score indicates more comorbidities
 Physical measurement Weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, orthostatic hypotension, complete physical examination on indication N/A
 MNA-SF® [23] 6-item screening test. Assesses loss of appetite, weight loss, BMI, mobility, the occurrence of stress or an acute disease and neuropsychological problems Score ranges from 0 to 14, lower score indicates greater risk of malnutrition, cut-off score ≤ 11
Psychological status
 PHQ-2 [24] 2-item screening test for depression Score ranges from 0 to 6, higher score indicates more depressive symptoms, cut-off score ≥ 3
 GDS-15 [25] 15-item questionnaire. Assesses depressive symptoms Score ranges from 0 to 15, higher score indicates more depressive symptoms, cut-off score ≥ 5
 Optimism questionnaire [26] 3-item questionnaire. Assesses optimism on a 5-point Likert scale: 0 corresponds to “strongly disagree” and 4 to “strongly agree” Score ranges from 0 to 12, higher score indicates greater optimism
 VAT [27] Learning task that assesses visual associative memory Score ranges from 0 to 12, lower score indicates more cognitive impairment
 Clock drawing [28] Cognitive test that assesses visuospatial and executive functioning Score ranges from 0 to 14, lower score indicates more executive impairment, cut-off score < 10
Functional status
 Katz ADL [29] 6-item questionnaire. Assesses bathing, dressing, toileting, transfers, continence and feeding Score ranges from 0 to 6, higher score indicates greater dependency
 Lawton IADL [30] 8-item questionnaire. Assesses more complex independent living skills: ability to use a phone, shopping, food preparation, housekeeping, laundry, mode of transportation, responsibility for personal medications, ability to handle finances Score ranges from 0 to 8, lower score indicates greater dependency
 Gait speed [31, 32] Timed 4-m walking test Lower score represents slow gait speed, cut-off speed ≤0.8 m/s
 Handgrip strength [33, 34] Handgrip strength measurement, using a Jamar Handheld
Dynamometer. Best of 3 measurements using the dominant hand
Reference values depend on age and gender
Social status Living arrangement (independent, institutionalised, hospitalised), the availability of a caregiver, hours of (home)care N/A
Quality of life
 EQ-5D-3L [35, 36] 5-item questionnaire. Assesses health-related quality of life exploring five dimensions: mobility, self-care, daily activities, pain/complaints, mood. Three possible levels of answers: no problems, some problems, extreme problems An index score is calculated, score ranges from − 0.33 to 1.0. Score < 0 represents worse than dead and 1 represents full health
 EQ-VAS [35, 36] Verbal description of an overall health state visual analogue scale, registered on a numerical rating scale Score ranges from 0 to 100, higher score indicates higher health-related quality of life
  1. Abbreviations: 6CIT 6 Item Cognitive Impairment Test, ADL Activities of Daily Living, BMI Body mass index, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, EQ-5D-3L EuroQol five dimensions three levels questionnaire, EQ-VAS EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale, G-8 Geriatric eight, GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale-15, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, MNA-SF® Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form, N/A Not applicable, PHQ-2 Patient Health Questionnaire, VAT Visual Association Test