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Table 4 Physical Fitness, BPSD-score, BPSD-caregivers´ distress, functional capacity and QoL after 6 months

From: Physical exercise for individuals with dementia: potential benefits perceived by formal caregivers

VARIABLE Exercise Group
(n = 4 about 38 IwD)
Control Group
(n = 5 about 26 IwD)
Mean Differences (CI 95%); P value
Physical Fitness
 Lower Strength (reps) 10.47 ± 3.75 9.19 ± 4.07 0.2 (−1.8 to 2.2); 0.87
 Upper-Strength (reps) 12.32 ± 4.98 10.38 ± 4.0 0.1 (− 2.2 to 2.4); 0.93
 Lower Flexibility (cm) 16.39 ± 9.50 20.69 ± 12.56 −1.8 (−7.4 to 3.8); 0.52
 Agility/ Dynamic balance (sec) 16.49 ± 7.78 22.98 ± 12.50 −1.8 (−7.4 to 3.8); 0.24
 Upper Flexibility (cm) 35.70 ± 13.86 42.50 ± 8.71 −3.1 (−8.5 to 2.2); 0.21
 Aerobic Endurance (steps) 71.71 ± 34.11 56.08 ± 23.01 0.9 (−14.5 to 16.6); 0.90
BPSD – Score (points)
 Delusions 0.79 ± 1.82 1.42 ± 2.77 −0.3 (−1.4 to 0.9); 0.66
 Hallucinations 0.61 ± 1.6 1.46 ± 3.00 −0.6 (−1.8 to 0.6); 0.30
 Agitation 1.89 ± 2.55 1.92 ± 2.99 −0.4 (−1.7 to 1.0); 0.59
 Dysphoria 0.97 ± 1.99 2.12 ± 2.93 −1.0 (−2.1 to 0.2); 0.11
 Anxiety 1.76 ± 2.20 2.12 ± 2.30 −0.8 (−2.1 to 0.5); 0.24
 Euphoria 0.74 ± 2.23 1.54 ± 3.06 −1.0 (−2.4 to 0.4); 0.17
 Apathy 1.03 ± 1.98 2.65 ± 3.41 −0.8 (−2.1 to 0.4); 0.20
 Disinhibition 1.18 ± 2.61 2.50 ± 3.38 −1.3 (−2.8 to 0.2); 0.08
 Irritability 1.05 ± 2.04 1.54 ± 2.89 −0.5 (−2.0 to 0.8); 0.40
 Aberrant motor activity 1.13 ± 2.54 1.69 ± 2.50 −1.0 (− 1.4 to 1.3); 0.87
 Night behavioral disturbances 0.89 ± 2.06 1.62 ± 2.52 −0.5 (−1.6 to 0.6); 0.34
 Appetite/eating abnormalities 1.37 ± 2.67 2.81 ± 4.10 −1.3 (− 3.0 to 0.4); 0.13
NPI Total 13.42 ± 14.61 23.38 ± 26.10 −8.4 (−19.1 to 2.30); 0.12
BPSD – Caregivers´ Distress (points)
 Delusions 0.68 ± 1.07 1.04 ± 1.54 −0.1 (−0.7 to 0.5); 0.72
 Hallucinations 0.63 ± 1.10 0.96 ± 1.60 −0.2 (− 0.9 to 0.4); 0.44
 Agitation 1.34 ± 1.34 1.42 ± 1.65 −0.2 (−1.0 to 0.5); 0.53
 Dysphoria 0.76 ± 1.40 1.23 ± 1.30 −0.5 (−1.2 to 0.2); 0.13
 Anxiety 1.26 ± 1.45 1.35 ± 1.52 −0.3 (−1.1 to 0.4); 0.33
 Euphoria 0.37 ± 0.89 0.85 ± 1.38 −0.5 (−1.1 to 0.4); 0.07
 Apathy 0.63 ± 1.20 1.50 ± 1.45 −0.5 (−1.2 to 0.1); 0.07
 Disinhibition 0.71 ± 1.25 1.54 ± 1.50 −0.6 (−1.3 to 0.1); 0.07
 Irritability 0.87 ± 1.44 0.92 ± 1.44 −0.2 (− 0.9 to 0.5); 0.57
 Aberrant motor activity 0.76 ± 1.29 0.96 ± 1.18 −0.04 (− 0.5 to 0.6); 0.90
 Night behavioral disturbances 0.63 ± 1.29 1.19 ± 1.65 −0.4 (−1.1 to 0.2); 0.19
 Appetite/eating abnormalities 0.84 ± 1.14 1.42 ± 1.8 −0.6 (−1.4 to 0.2); 0.16
NPI Total - Distress 8.63 ± 8.60 13.46 ± 12.71 −0.6 (−1.3 to 0.1); 0.14
Functional Capacity (points)
 Bathing 1.76 ± 0.88 1.88 ± 0.86 −0.9 (− 0.5 to 0.3); 0.69
 Dressing 2.11 ± 1.06 1.77 ± 1.03 0.2 (−0.3 to 0.8); 0.37
 Toileting 2.47 ± 0.80 1.85 ± 1.00 0.6 (0.1 to 1.0); 0.02*
 Transferring 2.68 ± 0.84 1.73 ± 0.96 0.7 (0.2 to 1.2); 0.003*
 Incontinence 2.61 ± 0.82 1.92 ± 0.98 0.6 (0.1 to 1.0); 0.01*
 Feeding 2.79 ± 0.81 2.04 ± 1.25 0.6 (0.1 to 1.2); 0.02*
Total Katz (points) 14.42 ± 3.80 11.19 ± 4.57 2.7 (0.5 to 4.9); 0.02*
Quality of Life    
Total QoL-AD (points) 26.38 ± 4.01 22.47 ± 5.04 2.3 (0.4 to 4.3); 0.02*
  1. *Significant (p ≤ 0.05); CI: confidence interval; Results adjusted to age