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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants at baseline

From: Physical exercise for individuals with dementia: potential benefits perceived by formal caregivers

CAREGIVERS Exercise Group
(n = 4)
Control Group
(n = 5)
pa
Age (years) 37.75 ± 8.14 36.40 ± 7.54 0.806
Geriatric working experience (years) 9.50 ± 3.51 8.60 ± 2.51 0.683
CARE RECEIVERS Exercise Group
(n = 38)
Control Group
(n = 26)
pa
Age (years) 77.29 ± 8.60 80.15 ± 2.80 0.179
Men, No. (%) 14 (36.8%) 5 (19.2%) 0.169
CDR (points) 1.18 ± 0.90 1.13 ± 0.63 0.808
MMSE (points) 18.11 ± 4.81 17.77 ± 5.07 0.268
Educational level (years) 2.60 ± 1.72 2.27 ± 1.54 0.381
Neurocognitive Disorder due to, No. (%)    0.259
 Alzheimer’s Disease 16 (42.1%) 18 (69.2%)  
 Vascular Disease 6 (15.8%) 3 (11.5%)  
 Parkinson’s Disease 1 (2.6%) 0 (0%)  
 Lewy Bodies Disease 1 (2.6%) 0 (0%)  
 Unspecified 14 (36.8%) 5 (19.2%)  
Diagnosis, No. (%) (Others than NCD)    
 Hypertension 14 (36.8%) 4 (15.4%) 0.045*
 Heart Disease 9 (23.7%) 2 (7.7%) 0.141
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (13.2%) 5 (19.2%) 0.463
 Osteoporosis 3 (7.9%) 3 (11.5%) 0.650
Blood Pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 126.72 ± 22.50 128.81 ± 22.10 0.718
 Diastolic 76.47 ± 14.64 76.73 ± 17.31 0.950
Physical Fitness
 Lower Strength (reps) 8.95 ± 4.31 9.96 ± 4.16 0.352
 Upper-Strength (reps) 9.71 ± 5.18 11.77 ± 4.11 0.096
 Lower Flexibility (cm) 20.86 ± 10.43 19.69 ± 12.82 0.691
 Agility/ Dynamic balance (sec) 19.33 ± 10.86 20.36 ± 12.52 0.726
 Upper Flexibility (cm) 43.53 ± 16.44 42.88 ± 10.34 0.861
 Aerobic Endurance (steps) 58.61 ± 32.82 69.46 ± 34.72 0.209
  1. a Student’s t-test or Mann Whitney for continuous variables; Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact