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Table 2 Operational definition of frailty, measured outcomes and time point of assessment

From: The impact of interventions on management of frailty in hospitalized frail older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

study Operational definition of frailty measured outcome Time point of assessment
[29]   Physical fitness
- Handgrip Strength: hydraulic hand dynamometer
- Functional mobility: TUG
- submaximal aerobic capacity: 6-MWT
Length of stay
- before discharge from index hospital stay
Follow up
- 3-month follow-up visit
[32]   Satisfaction Filled in shortly after discharge of hospital
[31]   Health related quality of life: (HUI-3)
- Hearing
- Speech
- Ambulation
- Dexterity
- Emotion
- Cognition
- Pain
EuroQoL-visual analog scale
- before discharge from hospital
Follow up
- 1 month follow up of re-hospitalization
- 3-month follow-up visit
[22] Two or more of the following criteria: tiredness, falls, endurance, needing support while shopping and visits to the emergency department Frailty
- FRESH screening tool
Decline in functional activity
- ADL Staircase:
Personal ADL
Instrumental ADL
Increased use of municipal services
- Index hospitalization
Follow up
- 3 months after discharge
[21] Frailty Index was measured of frailty according to the model of deficit accumulation, 40 item Frailty Index was calculated based on proposed variables by Searle et al. the score of Frailty Index is the ratio of health deficits present to the total number of health-related variables. Peak flow, shoulder strength, grip strength and gait speed were rated based on actual physical performance. All other items were patient reported. Frailty:
- Frailty Index
- Gait speed
Walking ability:
- Functional Ambulation Categories
Physical endurance:
- 6-MWT
Falls efficacy:
- Falls efficacy scale
Length of stay
Adherence rate
- First phase: 5 days after hospital admission
- Second phase: 5 days after initial prescription for usual care
Follow up
- minimum of 14 days after hospital admission
- maximum three weeks after baseline assessment
[11] Frailty by meeting 4 out of 5 Fried’s criteria:
- Unintended weight loss of more than 5% from the previous time point
- Weakness (grip strength)
- Self-report exhaustion
- Low activity by esds
- Slowness by ESDS
- Fried’s criteria
Physical status:
- Body Weight
- At admission
At discharge
[30] Frailty by meeting 4 out of 5 Fried’s criteria:
- weight loss > 5% compared to previous time point
- weakness by hand grip strength
- self-report exhaustion
- low activity level by ESDS
- Slow walking speed by ESDS
- Fried’s criteria
Length of stay
Before discharge
3 months after discharge
  1. TUG Timed up-and-go test, 6-MWT 6-Mined Walked Test, HUI-3 Health Utilities Index-3, EQ-VAS EuroQol-visual analog scale, ADLs Activity of Daily Living Staircase, DEMMI De Morton Mobility Index, HABAM Hierarchical assessment of balance, ESDS Enforce Social Dependency Scale