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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: The impact of interventions on management of frailty in hospitalized frail older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Geographicallocation; Type ofhospital, and ward Study design Samples Inclusion criteria/exclusioncriteria Recruitment duration
[29] Västra GötalandRegion, Sweden;
NU Hospital Group,
acute medical careunit
clinical, prospective,controlled trial Ni/Nc: 206/202
Mean ± SD:85.7 ± 5.4
gender, n(%):230 (56) Female
Inclusion:
- Aged ≥75 years
- need for in-hospital treatment
- fulfilled criteria for frailty according FRESH screeninginstrument
Exclusion:
- patient clearly suited for care at an organ-specificmedical unit
- informed consent could not be obtained
Mar. 2013 toJul. 2015
[32] Västra GötalandRegion, Sweden;
NU Hospital Group,
acute medical careunit
clinical, prospective,controlled trial Ni/Nc: 72/67
Mean ± SD, (intervention):85.6 ± 5.5
Mean ± SD, (control): 85.1 ± 5.6
gender, n(%): 47 (34) Male
Inclusion:
- Aged ≥75 years
- need for in-hospital treatment
- fulfilled criteria for frailty according FRESH screeninginstrument
Exclusion:
- patient clearly suited for care at an organ-specificmedical unit
Mar. 2013 toJul. 2015
[31] Västra GötalandRegion, Sweden;
NU Hospital Group,
acute medical careunit
clinical, prospective,controlled trial Ni/Nc: 206/202
Mean ± SD: 85.7 ± 5.4
gender, n(%): 230 (56) Female
Inclusion:
- Aged ≥75 years
- need of in-hospital treatment
- fulfilled the criteria for frailty according FRESHscreening instrument
Exclusion:
- Declined participation in the study
- patient clearly suited for care at an organ-specificmedical unit
- informed consent could not be obtained
- from patients previously defined MÄVA patients
- cognitively impaired patients
Mar. 2013 to Jul. 2015
[22] Västra GötalandRegion, Sweden;
NU Hospital Group,
acute medical careunit
clinical, prospective,controlled trial Ni/Nc: 206/202
Mean ± SD, (intervention):85.6 ± 5.5
Mean ± SD, (control): 85.1 ± 5.6
gender, n(%): 230 (56) Female
Inclusion:
- Aged ≥75 years
- need of in-hospital treatment
- fulfilled the criteria for frailty according FRESHscreening instrument
Exclusion:
- patient clearly suited for care at an organ-specificmedical unit
- from patients previously defined MÄVA patients
Mar. 2013 to Jul. 2015
[21] Western part,Germany; Generalacademic teachinghospital,
Acute medicalgeriatric ward
prospective, parallelgroup, randomizedcontrolled pilot andfeasibility trial Ni/Nc: 17/18
Mean ± SD: 80.9 ± 7.7
gender, n(%):74% female
Inclusion:
- a minimum age of 65 years
- planned acute-geriatric stay of
- at least two weeks in the study hospital
- care plan according to “early rehabilitation ingeriatric medicine” (GFK) procedures
- walking ability (with or without walking aid;independent or with stand-by assistance), indicatedby a Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC)score ≥ 3
- limited mobility, indicated by a timed up and gotest (TUG) score of > 9 s
Exclusion:
- significant cognitive impairment
- severe hearing impairment
- severe visual impairment
- German language barrier
- acute psychiatric condition (e.g.delirium)
- initiated palliative care
- any medical restriction for
- physiotherapeutic interventions(e.g. physical training)
- lack of understanding of simpleorders
- first phase: baseline-assessmenthad not been completed withinthe first 5 days after hospitaladmission,
second phase: baseline-assessmenthas not been completed within thefirst five days after initial physician’sprescription for physiotherapy
First phase:
Oct. 2016 to Dec. 2016 sphase:
Oct. 2017 to Dec. 2017
[11] Taipei,Taiwan;
university-affiliatedmedical center,GastrointestinalSurgery
Cluster randomizedtrial Ni/Nc: 197/180
Mean ± SD: 74.5 ± 5.8
gender, n(%):214 (56.8) Male
Inclusion:
- Age ≥ 65 years
- admitted in 36-bed gastrointestinal ward of urban medical center
- scheduled for elective abdominalsurgery
- expected length of stay > 6 days
Exclusion:
- profound dementia
- refused participation (patient,family, or physician refusal),
- 42 were not enrolled because ofcritical/terminal illness,
- respiratory isolation
- Severe hearing or visual impairmentthat precluded communication.
Aug. 2009 to Oct. 2012
[30] Taiwan;
Gastrointestinal ward
Before and afterintervention study Ni/Nc: 107/82
Mean ± SD, (intervention): 73.3 ± 6.2
Mean ± SD, (control): 72.8 ± 5.6
gender, n(%): 82 (43) Female
Inclusion:
- Age ≥ 65 years
- admitted in 36-bed gastrointestinal ward of urbanmedical center
- scheduled for elective abdominal surgery
- expected length of stay > 6 days
- completed discharge and 3-month evaluations
Exclusion:
- present in the hospital at the time of the analysis
- some form of data was missing
- discharged to temporary accommodation ortransferred to another hospital
control group:
Aug. 2007 to Apr. 2008
Intervention group:
May 2008 to Apr. 2009
  1. *NU NÄL-Uddevalla, Ni/Nc Number of intervention group/number of control group