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Table 4 Associations of sociodemographic factors, aspects of the personal life situation, attitudes towards COVID-19 and resilience with mental wellbeing in the German old age population (n = 1005; age ≥ 65 years) during COVID-19 lockdown – results of multiple regression analyses

From: Mental wellbeing in the German old age population largely unaltered during COVID-19 lockdown: results of a representative survey

  Mental wellbeing outcomes
  Depressive symptoms Anxiety Somatization Global severity indexa Loneliness
  β coef. SE p β coef. SE p β coef. SE p β coef. SE p β coef. SE p
Sociodemographic factors
 Age .011 .014 .826 .032 .011 .432 .157 .019 .002 .091 .036 .047 −.063 .010 .231
 Female sex (ref. male) −.009 .138 .798 .046 .145 .205 .002 .195 .949 .015 .382 .667 .110 .106 .004
 Education (ref. high)
 Low −.058 .179 .149 −.009 .176 .814 −.011 .274 .802 −.031 .503 .440 −.094 .153 .061
 Middle −.066 .190 .147 −.046 .167 .247 −.043 .259 .336 −.061 .506 .165 −.082 .157 .136
Marital status (ref. married)
 Single .085 .367 .085 −.058 .291 .142 −.035 .415 .388 −.006 .863 .878 .070 .295 .229
 Divorced .068 .272 .094 −.052 .326 .293 −.018 .572 .774 −.003 1.008 .958 .089 .293 .168
 Widowed .175 .341 .020 −.044 .245 .421 .019 .375 .753 .056 .789 .374 .107 .275 .226
 Living alone (ref. cohabiting) .059 .320 .435 .058 .231 .296 .062 .388 .351 .069 .788 .305 −.034 .272 .720
Aspects of the personal life situation during COVID-19 lockdown
 Duration of quarantine measures −.021 .018 .628 −.028 .013 .358 −.047 .022 .208 −.039 .788 .305 −.031 .013 .494
 Frequency of direct contact with others over past week .048 .027 .239 .033 .020 .268 .039 .029 .211 .050 .072 .202 .021 .013 .454
 Frequency of indirect contact with others over past week −.057 .045 .094 −.043 .047 .237 −.033 .069 .382 −.047 .134 .202 .025 .035 .526
 Receiving support in daily activities (ref. yes)     .038 .256 .527 −.015 .375 .708 .011 .705 .771 −.020 .165 .587
 Partial .042 .302 .360 .028 .184 .331 −.081 .246 .058 −.027 .470 .507 .020 .122 .637
 No −.005 .174 .905             
Unchanged health services access (ref. yes)
 Partial .044 .170 .530 .056 .187 .113 .064 .267 .075 .073 .480 .023 .006 .127 .855
 No .025 .190 .160 −.033 .166 .339 .046 .262 .241 .025 .494 .499 .057 .155 .224
COVID-19 infection (ref. not applicable)
 Self .013 .856 .569 .061 1.827 .201 .032 .774 .028 .042 3.268 .173 .063 2.024 .411
 Household/family member .042 .599 .273 .007 .426 .811 .053 .645 .085 .051 1.290 .088 .047 .358 .171
 Self-isolation (ref. not applicable) .003 .549 .912 .013 .379 .541 .042 .547 .059 .027 1.040 .211 −.065 .317 .008
 SelfHousehold/family member −.003 .378 .936 .000 .349 .988 .018 .367 .453 .006 .768 .812 −.033 .255 .337
Attitudes towards COVID-19 and associated quarantine measures
 Being worried .076 .054 .038 .096 .056 .012 −.066 .093 .149 .020 .157 .608 .046 .041 .257
 Feeling threatened .020 .071 .676 .046 .063 .283 .056 .102 .257 .058 .191 .216 −.005 .056 .925
 Feeling threatened due to age −.002 .070 .972 −.016 .064 .708 −.004 .091 .933 .000 .175 .999 .071 .053 .177
 Feeling threatened due to pre-existing health conditions .020 .048 .609 −.004 .049 .918 .195 .070 <.001 .106 .127 .004 −.005 .056 .925
 Supportive of the government’s quarantine measures (ref. yes) .056 .226 .098 .031 .206 .321 .063 .274 .033 .065 .577 .038 .071 .053 .177
 Feeling restricted due to quarantine measures .108 .050 <.001 .061 .050 .066 −.005 .067 .868 .060 .128 .048 .002 .037 .956
Resilience −.316 .017 <.001 −.347 .016 <.001 −.229 .023 <.001 −.352 .044 <.001 −.146 .013 <.001
Model aspects
 Constant 3.664 1.184 .002 4.090 1.116 <.001 1.067 1.528 .485 8.704 3.022 .004 5.277 .779 <.001
 R2 .237 .192 .213 .263 .109
  1. aGlobal severity index: sum of depressive symptoms, anxiety and somatization. Abbreviations: 95%CI 95% confidence interval; β coef. beta coefficient; p p-value; SE standard error