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Table 3 Adjusted expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries with and without cognitive deficits or ADRD by race/ethnicity

From: Racial and ethnic patterns and differences in health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries with and without cognitive deficits or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

  Expenditures ($), Mean (95% CI)
  Total Out-of-pocket Inpatient Outpatient Office-based ER Home health Prescription drug
Without cognitive deficits
 NL white (N = 39,767) 11,541 (11,323 to 11,759) 1826 (1796 to 1855) 3634 (3476 to 3792) 2027 (1936 to 2118) 5512 (5388 to 5636) 228 (216 to 241) 362 (330 to 393) 2725 (2665 to 2785)
 NL Black (N = 7974) 10,236 (9633 to 10,839)*** 1286 (1226 to 1347)*** 3388 (2979 to 3796) 1689 (1464 to 1914)*** 4440 (4166 to 4714)*** 279 (237 to 321)* 624 (523 to 724)*** 2304 (2204 to 2403)***
 NL Asian (N = 2551) 9497 (8540 to 10,454)*** 1444 (1278 to 1609)*** 2968 (2082 to 3853) 941 (695 to 1187)*** 4386 (3893 to 4879)*** 133 (101 to 165)*** 357 (214 to 499) 2678 (2432 to 2924)
 Latino (N = 6765) 9597 (9054 to 10,139)*** 1304 (1212 to 1395)*** 3082 (2643 to 3521)* 1396 (1173 to 1618)*** 4674 (4386 to 4962)*** 249 (187 to 311) 616 (483 to 749)*** 2320 (2183 to 2458)***
With cognitive deficits without ADRD
 NL white (N = 5947) 21,133 (20,134 to 22,132) 2420 (2262 to 2578) 8388 (7627 to 9148) 2064 (1805 to 2324) 6489 (6090 to 6888) 459 (411 to 508) 3075 (2748 to 3402) 4422 (4227 to 4617)
 NL Black (N = 1933) 21,299 (19,488 to 23,109) 1722 (1494 to 1950)*** 7303 (6268 to 8339) 2012 (1483 to 2541) 6881 (5805 to 7957) 448 (368 to 529) 4561 (3848 to 5273)*** 3948 (3422 to 4474)
 NL Asian (N = 523) 19,090 (15,323 to 22,858) 1793 (991 to 2595) 5114 (3364 to 6863)*** 863 (559 to 1168)*** 5824 (4516 to 7132)*** 443 (262 to 624) 4257 (2299 to 6215) 4264 (3651 to 4878)
 Latino (N = 1685) 19,277 (17,449 to 21,106) 1356 (1226 to 1487)*** 7435 (5857 to 9013) 1783 (1327 to 2239) 6232 (5556 to 6907) 360 (268 to 453) 3539 (2869 to 4208) 3669 (3376 to 3962)***
With ADRD
 NL white (N = 2028) 21,839 (20,221 to 23,458) 3394 (2998 to 3790) 5907 (4918 to 6896) 1046 (853 to 1239) 5129 (4394 to 5864) 465 (392 to 537) 7780 (6814 to 8747) 4987 (4647 to 5328)
 NL Black (N = 693) 22,982 (20,681 to 25,283) 2140 (1653 to 2627)*** 7223 (5576 to 8871) 1122 (478 to 1765) 4417 (3578 to 5256) 503 (355 to 652) 9316 (7814 to 10,819) 3899 (3436 to 4361)***
 NL Asian (N = 120) 21,164 (14,103 to 28,226) 1631 (394 to 2868)** 5898 (597 to 11,199) 159 (−18 to 336)*** 4252 (2796 to 5709) 137 (59 to 215)*** 6427 (3626 to 9227) 4790 (3496 to 6085)
 Latino (N = 579) 22,832 (19,691 to 25,973) 1896 (1379 to 2414)*** 5462 (3218 to 7706) 1063 (348 to 1779) 5447 (3972 to 6921) 699 (370 to 1028) 9025 (7356 to 10,695) 4303 (3582 to 5024)
  1. Notes: ADRD Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, ER emergency room, NL non-Latino
  2. We performed multivariable regression models to estimate expenditure differences among racial and ethnic groups without cognitive deficits, those with cognitive deficits without ADRD and those with ADRD. Using marginal effects at representative values, we estimated the adjusted mean values of the outcomes for each of the racial and ethnic group without cognitive deficits, those with cognitive deficits without ADRD, and those with ADRD. To control for differences in sample characteristics among racial and ethnic groups, we adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, family income as a share of the federal poverty level, family size, health insurance in addition to Medicare, area of residence, medical conditions, limitations at school, work, or housework, functional limitations, and a proxy response to an interview. Then, we conducted post-estimation tests to examine statistical significance in the differences in the adjusted outcomes among racial and ethnic minority groups relative to non-Latino white
  3. * P < .05, ** P < .01, *** P < .001