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Table 2 Unadjusted expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries with and without cognitive deficits or ADRD by race/ethnicity

From: Racial and ethnic patterns and differences in health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries with and without cognitive deficits or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

  Expenditures ($), Mean (SD)
  Total Out-of-pocket Inpatient Outpatient Office-based ER Home health Prescription drug
Without cognitive deficits
 NL white (N = 39,767) 11,686 (19001) 1876 (2683) 3696 (13532) 2063 (8685) 5992 (11978) 247 (1604) 317 (2718) 2720 (5323)
 NL Black (N = 7974) 10,522 (18551)*** 1217 (3394) *** 3370 (12418) 1592 (8706)** 4518 (12144)*** 284 (1410) 734 (4701)*** 2720 (5222)
 NL Asian (N = 2551) 7782 (19638)*** 1115 (2688)*** 2164 (16959) *** 669 (4733)*** 3999 (8641)** 117 (528) 300 (2696)** 2328 (4885)**
 Latino (N = 6765) 9070 (17012)*** 1032 (2077)*** 2908 (12711)** 947 (4638)*** 4220 (10430) *** 269 (2261) 572 (3989)*** 2380 (3916)***
With cognitive deficits without ADRD
 NL white (N = 5947) 21,222 (31181) 2617 (5319) 8464 (23907) 2188 (10782) 7150 (15071) 471 (1637) 2712 (10424) 4165 (5905)
 NL Black (N = 1933) 21,628 (30511) 1656 (3729)*** 7871 (20071) 1994 (11807) 7135 (20664) 480 (1653) 4154 (11259)*** 4124 (8734)
 NL Asian (N = 523) 15,930 (21125)** 1429 (5464)*** 4525 (12573) ** 1039 (5299) 6272 (15183) 424 (1618) 3165 (9368) 3775 (5320)
 Latino (N = 1685) 19,425 (30296) 1159 (1994)*** 7437 (23572) 1384 (6383)* 5679 (12715)** 378 (1377) 3447 (10719) 4119 (5766)
With ADRD
 NL white (N = 2028) 21,830 (27119) 4037 (9629) 6089 (17392) 1073 (5054) 5324 (11214) 489 (1349) 6744 (16028) 4476 (5292)
 NL Black (N = 693) 24,752 (26767) 1897 (4936)*** 8922 (20413)** 1060 (6407) 3983 (8534)* 504 (1663) 8250 (13558) 4174 (4893)
 NL Asian (N = 120) 20,040 (29550) 1903 (6406) 5441 (22930) 147 (691) 3934 (6762) 466 (2729) 6817 (14605) 4377 (5180)
 Latino (N = 579) 24,318 (31543) 1415 (3371)*** 6262 (23446) 1149 (5986) 5031 (12812) 659 (2375) 9334 (16572) 4543 (5333)
  1. Notes: ADRD Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, ER emergency room, NL non-Latino
  2. * P < .05, ** P < .01, *** P < .001