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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Racial and ethnic patterns and differences in health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries with and without cognitive deficits or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

  Without cognitive deficits With cognitive deficits without ADRD With ADRD
  NL white (N = 39,767) NL Black
(N = 7974)
p value NL Asian
(N = 2551)
p value Latino (N = 6765) p value NL white (N = 5947) NL Black
(N = 1933)
p value NL Asian
(N = 523)
p value Latino (N = 1685) p value NL white (N = 2028) NL Black
(N = 693)
p value NL Asian (N = 120) p value Latino (N = 579) p value
Age (years)    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***    **     *
65–69 29.54 35.72   34.02   35.65   18.00 24.08   18.60   23.59   5.11 5.92   5.93   5.94  
70–74 26.37 27.42   27.42   28.74   17.54 21.65   20.93   21.46   9.42 13.02   5.93   14.86  
75–79 20.78 18.53   19.70   19.65   19.90 18.70   22.29   22.31   15.04 19.53   19.49   17.66  
80–84 14.15 11.63   11.02   10.11   20.62 16.70   18.41   15.50   25.87 21.15   30.51   27.62  
> = 84 9.16 6.70   7.84   5.84   23.93 18.86   19.77   17.14   44.56 40.38   38.14   33.92  
Female 57.08 63.19 *** 56.47   58.29   60.42 66.39 ** 60.47   67.96 *** 67.34 72.93 ** 73.73 * 65.21  
Married 3.19 6.89 *** 3.62   5.83 *** 4.78 8.96 *** 5.04   7.54 ** 3.04 5.33   6.78   7.34 ***
Education    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***
Less than high school degree 16.18 29.04   30.48   54.23   27.33 41.99   41.67   65.29   27.59 42.75   58.47   67.83  
High school degree 42.73 43.70   25.55   24.95   42.30 37.04   23.45   18.12   43.04 37.57   17.80   14.69  
Some college or more than college degree 36.22 19.95   33.03   12.62   24.51 11.85   21.71   8.09   21.92 9.32   11.02   5.59  
Family income    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***    ***   **   ***
0–99% FPL 9.92 24.77   12.97   24.68   16.91 37.04   20.35   33.31   17.47 32.69   23.73   41.78  
100–124% FPL 5.33 9.69   6.45   10.23   9.28 13.65   8.53   14.29   10.28 11.69   5.93   13.81  
125–199% FPL 16.13 20.58   14.60   22.08   21.68 22.34   20.35   24.13   23.24 24.41   18.64   20.80  
200–399% FPL 30.69 27.47   28.09   27.77   29.83 19.81   25.58   21.52   26.99 21.89   30.51   19.76  
> = 400% FPL 37.93 17.48   37.88   15.23   22.31 7.17   25.19   6.75   22.03 9.32   21.19   3.85  
Family size    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***    ***   *   ***
1 32.60 38.19   17.63   26.10   43.97 47.00   31.01   34.29   45.11 38.02   39.83   34.79  
2 57.08 36.65   46.88   43.23   39.60 29.29   34.69   33.80   37.06 28.70   30.51   33.39  
3 5.56 11.72   11.14   12.80   6.76 9.69   11.05   11.73   5.72 12.57   5.93   11.01  
4+ 2.42 9.21   19.66   14.76   4.53 8.64   19.57   16.60   3.90 9.91   14.41   13.46  
Additional health insurance    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***    ***   **   ***
Private insurance 38.12 61.42   60.80   77.57   50.26 77.92   74.61   89.36   51.09 80.77   68.64   91.96  
Medicaid 8.47 24.49   30.04   35.76   20.67 46.79   52.52   60.91   22.33 51.04   54.24   68.18  
US census region    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***    ***   ***   ***
Northeast 18.86 17.25   13.29   14.51   17.66 16.49   12.79   16.05   19.19 14.35   14.41   15.03  
Midwest 26.48 17.64   6.21   5.51   23.98 15.91   6.78   3.65   23.95 18.20   2.54   2.10  
South 34.91 57.90   13.29   42.05   37.53 59.59   10.08   40.49   35.49 57.1   17.80   52.62  
West 19.76 7.21   67.21   37.93   20.82 8.01   70.35   39.82   21.37 10.36   65.25   30.24  
Medical conditions
 Myocardial infarction 6.15 5.26 *** 4.18 *** 5.52 * 10.74 11.59   7.75 ** 8.88   7.90 11.24 * 9.32   6.12  
Congestive heart failure 4.21 4.02   2.39 *** 2.46 *** 9.17 8.69   5.04 ** 5.59 *** 8.96 9.91   6.78   6.12  
 Diabetes 17.43 33.18 *** 25.47 *** 33.66 *** 27.61 41.94 *** 33.33   44.44 *** 20.81 35.80 *** 27.12 * 40.21 ***
 Hypertension 55.24 76.02 *** 64.82 *** 63.32 *** 60.85 78.71 *** 70.54   69.12 *** 56.76 76.78 *** 75.42 ** 68.36 ***
 Renal disease 0.60 1.38 *** 0.48   0.53 *** 1.69 3.11 * 2.33   1.34   1.16 1.92   0.00   1.05  
 Caner 14.86 7.23 *** 4.97 *** 5.89 *** 16.38 8.75 *** 3.29 *** 6.87 *** 12.15 9.17   1.69 ** 8.22 *
 Mental disease 15.45 8.88 *** 5.09 *** 13.60 *** 36.35 21.18 *** 18.99 *** 32.77   32.56 21.75 *** 16.1 *** 31.64  
 Any limitations 53.34 53.14   33.59 *** 46.34 *** 94.23 95.15   90.31 ** 93.37   93.52 96.45   94.92   95.45  
 Physical limitations 37.24 41.46 *** 20.10 *** 31.85 *** 84.66 87.04   80.04 *** 83.77   77.97 81.80   81.36   81.99  
 Proxy respondent 98.97 98.56 ** 98.17 *** 99.17 * 91.44 92.99   93.99   94.71 *** 76.66 84.02 ** 78.81   89.34 ***
  1. Notes: ADRD Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, NL non-Latino, FPL federal poverty level. * P < .05, ** P < .01, *** P < .001