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Table 4 Independent effects of lagged pain, insomnia and depressive symptoms on falls

From: Independent and synergistic effects of pain, insomnia, and depression on falls among older adults: a longitudinal study

Variables Model 1OR (95%CI) Model 2
OR (95%CI)
Model 3
OR (95%CI)
Pain only 1.39 (1.27–1.54) *** 1.42 (1.28–1.56) *** 1.36 (1.23–1.50) ***
Insomnia only 1.16 (1.03–1.30) * 1.15 (1.02–1.29) * 1.13 (1.00–1.27)
Depression only 1.44 (1.25–1.66) *** 1.49 (1.29–1.73) *** 1.43 (1.23–1.67) ***
Pain & Insomnia
 Pain 1.39 (1.26–1.53) *** 1.41 (1.28–1.56) *** 1.36 (1.23–1.51) ***
 Insomnia 1.13 (1.00 §-1.27) * 1.12 (1.00 §-1.26) * 1.11 (0.98–1.25)
Pain & Depression
 Pain 1.40 (1.27–1.54) *** 1.42 (1.28–1.56) *** 1.36 (1.22–1.50) ***
 Depression 1.39 (1.21–1.61) *** 1.44 (1.25–1.67) *** 1.40 (1.21–1.63) ***
Insomnia & Depression
 Insomnia 1.12 (1.00–1.26) 1.12 (0.99–1.26) 1.09 (0.97–1.23)
 Depression 1.42 (1.23–1.64) *** 1.47 (1.27–1.71) *** 1.43 (1.23–1.66) ***
Pain & Insomnia & Depression
 Pain 1.39 (1.26–1.54) *** 1.41 (1.28–1.56) *** 1.36 (1.22–1.51) ***
 Insomnia 1.09 (0.97–1.23) 1.09 (0.97–1.23) 1.07 (0.95–1.21)
 Depression 1.38 (1.20–1.60) *** 1.44 (1.24–1.66) *** 1.40 (1.20–1.63) ***
  1. Model 1: independent variables of interest
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + demographic covariates (age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, living arrangement)
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + health-related covariates (BMI, smoking, vigorous activities, number of chronic illnesses, hospitalization)
  4. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001
  5. § Please note that this figure looks like the confident interval includes 1. However, the p-value was still < 0.05