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Table 3 Synergistic effects of lagged pain, insomnia and depressive symptoms on falls

From: Independent and synergistic effects of pain, insomnia, and depression on falls among older adults: a longitudinal study

Variablesa Model 1OR (95%CI) Model 2
OR (95%CI)
Model 3
OR (95%CI)
Pain * Insomnia 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 1.01 (0.83–1.29) 0.98 (0.78–1.23)
Pain * Depression 1.04 (0.78–1.39) 1.05 (0.78–1.41) 1.02 (0.76–1.38)
Insomnia * Depression 1.31 (0.98–1.75) 1.30 (0.97–1.74) 1.28 (0.94–1.73)
Pain * Insomnia* Depression 1.32 (0.85–2.06) 1.32 (0.84–2.07) 1.25 (0.78–1.98)
  1. aEach two-way or three-way interaction term was tested separately in the models
  2. Model 1: independent variables of interest
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + demographic covariates (age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, living arrangement)
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + health-related covariates (BMI, smoking, vigorous activities, number of chronic illnesses, hospitalization)